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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate regression analysis assessing risk factors for patient diagnostic delay > 3 weeks

From: Determinants of patient and health care services delays for tuberculosis diagnosis in Italy: a cross-sectional observational study

Factors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age (years) 1 (0.98; 1.02) 1.03 (1; 1.06)
Female gender 1.52 (0.74; 3.13) 1.72 (0.68; 4.39)
Nationality
 Italian 1 1
 African 1.66 (0.61;4.50) 2.91 (0.62; 13.60)
 South-American 1.25 (0.39;4.01) 1.54 (0.33; 7.15)
 Asian 1.79 (0.65;4.90) 1.48 (0.33; 6.56)
 Eastern European 1.98 (0.65;6.04) 3.19 (0.64; 15.76)
Living in Italy for < 5 years 2.46 (1.03;5.87) 3.47 (1.09; 11.01)
Annual income
 ≥10,000 € 1 1
 <10,000 € 0.930 (0.43;2) 1.21 (0.47; 3.14)
 No source of income 1.89 (0.64;5.58) 2.84 (0.53; 15.24)
Housing conditions
 Living with others 1  
 Living with family 1.14 (0.53;2.47)  
 Living alone 0.47 (0.14;1.54)  
School degree
 University degree 1  
 Primary/secondary school degree 1.50 (0.38;5.88)  
 High school diploma 1.00 (0.26;3.92)  
Occupation
 Unemployed 1  
 Employed/Retired 0.82 (0.20;3.44)  
 Student 0.50 (0.07;3.55)  
Comorbidities 0.79 (0.34;1.80) 0.95 (0.33; 2.70)
Social conditions 1.61 (0.41;6.30) 1.50 (0.27; 8.25)
History of potential exposure 0.68 (0.30;1.54) 0.61 (0.22; 1.71)
Extra-pulmonary TB 1.36 (0.63;2.94) 1.43 (0.51; 4.03)
Absence of respiratory symptomsa 0.96 (0.46;2.03) 1.38 (0.53; 3.61)a
First assessment by General Practitioner 0.93 (0.45;1.88) 0.63 (0.24; 1.64)
Reasons for delayb
 Underestimation of symptoms 1.47 (0.65;3.34) 3.43 (0.98; 12.04)
 Fear of consequences 0.87 (0.43;1.77) 1.01 (0.34; 2.98)
 Barriers to healthcare access 1.02 (0.50;2.10) 1.35 (0.49; 3.74)
Bad TB knowledge 1.17 (0.57;2.40) 1.23 (0.48; 3.19)
Uncorrect beliefs about TB 0.78 (0.38;1.57) 0.59 (0.23; 1.51)
  1. Statistically significant results are shown in italics
  2. aassessed in a separate multivariable model not including extra-pulmonary TB
  3. Abbreviations: OR Odd Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, TB Tuberculosis
  4. bFor details of self-reported reasons for delay see Table 1