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Table 1 Clinical characteristicsa) of the patient populationb)

From: Soluble markers of neutrophil, T-cell and monocyte activation are associated with disease severity and parasitemia in falciparum malaria

N HIV only Malaria only Malaria & HIV
58 61 70
Age, years 39 (22–84) 40 (18–79) 40 (20–65)
Sex, females 50 (29/58) 41 (25/61) 50 (35/70)
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 8.9 (2.9–15.2) 11.2 (3.2–17.0) 9.4 (2.5–15.7)
Leukocytes (× 109/L) 8.2 (0.3–25.4) 6.9 (1.3–15.5) 7.8 (0.9–21.8)
Platelets (×109/L) 220 (13–682) 124 (11–452) 90 (8–330)
Se-Creatinine (μmol/L) 161 (41–873) 127 (57–357) 223 (62–1529)
Se-Glucosis (mmol/L) 6.1 (3.3–10.6) 8.7 (3.6–40.5) 6.12 (1.5–27.0)
Liverfailurec) 5 (4/57) 5 (3/61) 19 (13/70)
Coagulation disturb.d) 0 2 (1/61) 13 (9/70)
Cerebral disturb. e) 33 (19/58) 25 (15/61) 31 (22/70)
Systolic blood pressure 115 (90–160) 122 (70–240) 115 (80–170)
Respiratory rate 29 (12–56) 22 (12–68) 24 (16–42)
Case fatality rate 27.8 (15/54) 1.7 (1/59) 13.0f) (9/69)
  1. a) Values in mean (min-max) or percentage and proportion
  2. b) The 52 healthy controls are not included
  3. c) Defined as jaundice/ bilirubine> 43 μmol/L
  4. d) Defined as bleeding disturbances/ hemolysis
  5. e) Defined as GCS ≤ 11, convulsions or confusion
  6. f) One patient died of non-malarial cause, he is excluded