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Table 2 Demographic features and risk factors for clustering using 24-locus typing for cases notified in the West Midlands, by the retrospective method of clustering

From: Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in an ethnically-diverse high incidence region in England, 2007–11

  All cases, 09–11 Clustered cases   
  N Col % N % OR (95% CI) P aOR (95% CI) p
Sex
 Male 744 56 267 35.9 1   1  
 Female 585 44 185 31.6 0.8 (0.7,1) 0.1 0.8 (0.6,1) 0.03
Total 1329 100 452 34     
Age group (years)
 0–14 30 2.3 15 50 1   1  
 15–44 830 62.5 313 37.7 0.6 (0.3,1.3) 0.18 0.8 (0.4,1.7) 0.51
 45–64 263 19.8 75 28.5 0.4 (0.2,0.9) 0.02 0.4 (0.2,0.9) 0.04
 65 and over 206 15.5 49 23.8 0.3 (0.1,0.7) < 0.01 0.3 (0.1,0.7) 0.01
Total 1329 100 452 34     
Birthplace
 UK 401 31.5 214 53.4 1   1  
 Europe 37 2.9 10 27 0.3 (0.2,0.7) < 0.01 0.3 (0.1,0.7) < 0.01
 East Mediterranean 16 1.3 4 25 0.3 (0.1,0.9) 0.04 0.2 (0.1,0.8) 0.02
 Africa 221 17.3 54 24.4 0.3 (0.2,0.4) < 0.01 0.3 (0.2,0.4) < 0.01
 Americas 14 1.1 5 35.7 0.5 (0.2,1.5) 0.2 0.7 (0.2,2.3) 0.59
 South Asia 554 43.5 145 26.2 0.3 (0.2,0.4) < 0.01 0.4 (0.3,0.5) < 0.01
 East/Southeast Asia 32 2.5 5 15.6 0.2 (0.1,0.4) < 0.01 0.2 (0.1,0.4) < 0.01
Total 1275 100 437 34.3     
Ethnicity
 White 220 17.2 88 40 1    
 Black-Caribbean 37 2.9 20 54.1 1.8 (0.9,3.6) 0.11
 Black-African 213 16.7 58 27.2 0.6 (0.4,0.8) < 0.01
 Black-Other 8 0.6 5 62.5 2.5 (0.6,10.7) 0.22
 South Asian 703 55.1 241 34.3 0.8 (0.6,1.1) 0.12
 Chinese 10 0.8 1 10 0.2 (0,1.3) 0.09
 Mixed/Other 86 6.7 28 32.6 0.7 (0.4,1.2) 0.23
Total 1277 100 441 34.5     
Time since entry to UK to tuberculosis diagnosis (years)*  
 0–1 147 18 32 21.8 1    
 2–4 176 21.5 39 22.2 1 (0.6,1.7) 0.93
 5–9 206 25.2 53 25.7 1.2 (0.8,2.1) 0.39
 10 and over 288 35.3 83 28.8 1.5 (0.9,2.3) 0.12
Total 817 100 207 25.3     
Disease site
 Pulmonary 889 67 337 37.9 1   1  
 Extra-pulmonary 438 33 115 26.3 0.6 (0.5,0.8) < 0.01 0.6 (0.5,0.8) < 0.01
Total 1327 100 452 34.1     
Drug sensitivity
 Resistant to at least one drug 74 5.6 11 14.9 1   1  
 Sensitive 1244 94.4 440 35.4 3.1 (1.6,6) < 0.01 2.5 (1.3,5) < 0.01
Total 1318 100 451 34.2     
Previous diagnosis
 No 1008 85.2 342 33.9 1    
 Yes 175 14.8 70 40 1.3 (0.9,1.8) 0.12
Total 1183 100 412 34.8     
History of or current problem drug use**
 No 969 95.8 321 33.1 1    
 Yes 42 4.2 33 78.6 7.4 (3.5,15.7) < 0.01
Total 1011 100 354 35     
History of or current problem alcohol use**
 No 948 96.5 322 34 1    
 Yes 34 3.5 23 67.7 4.1 (2,8.4) < 0.01
Total 982 100 345 35.1     
History of or current homelessness**
 No 985 96.8 342 34.7 1    
 Yes 33 3.2 16 48.5 1.8 (0.9,3.5) 0.11
Total 1018 100 358 35.2     
History of or currently in prison**
 No 932 95.9 316 33.9 1    
 Yes 40 4.1 28 70 4.5 (2.3,9.1) < 0.01
Total 972 100 344 35.4     
  1. *Foreign-born only
  2. **Missing for the cases notified in 2007 and 2008, and for half of those notified in 2009