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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by HIV status at enrolment

From: Prevalence and incidence of genital warts and cervical Human Papillomavirus infections in Nigerian women

  Total (N = 962) HIV negative (N = 535) HIV positive (N = 427) p-value
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, years (Mean, SD) 37.9 (7.72) 38.4 (7.90) 37.2 (7.42) 0.02
 Nature of residence (N, %) < 0.001
 Urban 431 (45.0) 283 (53.1) 148 (34.9)  
 Semirural 367 (38.4) 180 (33.8) 187 (44.1)  
 Rural 159 (16.6) 70 (13.1) 89 (30.0)  
Socioeconomic status (N, %) < 0.001
 Low 375 (39.0) 152 (28.4) 223 (52.2)  
 Middle 384 (39.9) 226 (42.2) 158 (37.0)  
 High 203 (21.1) 157 (29.4) 46 (10.8)  
 Education (N, %) < 0.001
  ≤ 6 years 104 (10.8) 45 (8.40) 59 (13.8)  
 7–12 years 602 (62.7) 294 (55.1) 308 (72.3)  
  > 12 years 254 (26.5) 195 (36.5) 59 (13.9)  
 Marital status (N, %) < 0.001
 Married 647 (67.3) 421 (78.7) 226 (52.9)  
 Not married 315 (32.7) 114 (21.3) 201 (47.1)  
Lifestyle characteristics
 Age at sexual debut, years (Mean, SD) 20.1 (4.04) 20.8 (4.24) 19.2 (3.59) < 0.001
 Lifetime number of partners (Mean, SD) 3.43 (3.34) 2.85 (2.35) 4.16 (4.16) < 0.001
 Number of partners in preceding year (Mean, SD) 1.00 (0.47) 1.00 (0.34) 1.00 (0.60) 0.86
 Ever smokeda (N, %) 13 (1.35) 4 (0.75) 9 (2.11) 0.09
 Alcohol Consumptionb (N, %) 129 (13.5) 70 (13.2) 59 (13.9) 0.78
 Ever douche (N, %) 606 (63.1) 319 (59.6) 287 (67.4) 0.02
 Regularly douche in last 3 months (N, %) 544 (56.5) 284 (53.1) 260 (60.9) 0.32
 Condom use (N, %) 290 (30.2) 102 (19.1) 188 (44.0) < 0.001
 Oral contraceptive use (N, %) 93 (9.67) 38 (8.90) 55 (10.3) 0.51
Clinical characteristics
 Body Mass Index, kg/m2 (N, %) < 0.001
 Normal weight, 18.5–24.9 303 (33.4) 136 (26.6) 167 (42.0)  
 Overweight, 25.0–29.9 324 (35.6) 184 (35.9) 140 (35.3)  
 Obese, ≥ 30.0 282 (31.0) 192 (37.5) 90 (22.7)  
 Vaginal pH (N, %) 0.21
  < 4.5 73 (7.59) 47 (8.79) 26 (6.09)  
 4.5–5.5 68 (7.07) 34 (6.36) 34 (7.96)  
  > 5.5 821 (85.3) 454 (84.9) 367 (85.9)  
 Diagnosis of vaginal infection in last 3 monthsc (N, %) 23 (2.39) 17 (3.18) 6 (1.41) 0.09
 Currently on antiretroviral therapy (N, %) 395 (92.5)  
  1. a Ever smoked up to 100 cigarrette sticks in lifetime
  2. b Consumption of at least one unit of alcohol every three months
  3. c Infections include bacterial vaginosis, Candidiasis, Trichomonas, Herpes, Chlamydia, Pelvic inflammatory disease, gonorrhoea, syphilis and genital warts