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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of tested and non-tested patients for both all atypical pathogens and L. pneumophila (column A) and of patients with community-acquired pneumonia caused and not caused by atypical pathogen (column B)

From: Atypical pathogens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a worldwide perspective

Variables Column A Column B
  Tested patients
(N = 1250)
Non-tested patients
(N = 2452)
P Atypical pathogen CAP (N = 63) Non-atypical pathogen CAP (N = 1187) P
Demographic characteristics
 Age, years 68 (46–75) 70 (51–81) 0.43 62 (43–72) 71 (56–81) 0.015
 Male, n (%) 714 (57) 1459 (59) 0.83 27 (43) 687 (58) 0.027
 Underweight, n (%) 56 (4.5) 110 (4.5) 0.36 3 (4.8) 53 (4.5) 1
 Obesity, n (%) 208 (16.6) 369 (15) 0.21 11 (17.4) 197 (16.6) 0.811
Respiratory past medical history
 Active lung cancer, s (%) 27 (2.2) 82 (3.3) 0.50 0 (0) 27 (2.3) 0.64
 Asthma, n (%) 85 (6.8) 176 (7.2) 0.73 3 (4.8) 82 (6.9) 0.79
 Bronchiectasis, n (%) 61 (4.9) 117 (4.6) 0.87 1 (1.6) 60 (5) 0.36
 Chronic aspiration, n (%) 71 (5.7) 186 (7.6) 0.03 0 (0) 71 (6) 0.45
 COPD, n (%) 327 (26.2) 609 (24.8) 0.38 14 (22.2) 313 (26.3) 0.51
 FEV1 ≤ 30%, n (%) 27 (2.2) 73 (3) 0.16 0 (0) 27 (2.2) 0.64
 Current/former smoker, n (%) 427 (34.2) 818 (33.4) 0.63 18 (28.5) 409 (34.4) 0.382
 Interstitial lung disease, n (%) 34 (2.7) 61 (2.5) 0.66 1 (1.6) 33 (2.8) 1
 Obstructive sleep apnea, n (%) 51 (4.1) 79 (3.2) 0.19 0 (0) 51 (4.3) 0.17
 Oxygen therapy at home, n (%) 83 (6.6) 141 (5.7) 0.30 4 (6.4) 79 (6.6) 1
 Lung transplantation, n (%) 1 (0.8) 6 (0.2) 0.44 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 1
 Tracheostomy, n (%) 15 (1) 38 (1.5) 0.45 0 (0) 15 (1.3) 1
Cardiovascular past medical history
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 218 (17.4) 309 (12.6) < 0.001 11 (17.7) 207 (17.4) 0.947
 Coronary artery disease, n (%) 178 (14.2) 345 (14.1) 0.88 3 (4.8) 175 (14.7) 0.030
 Heart failure, n (%) 88 (7) 210 (8.2) 0.26 2 (3.2) 86 (7.2) 0.312
 Hypertension, n (%) 183 (14.6) 323 (13) 0.14 4 (6.5) 179 (14.4) 0.790
Chronic medications
 Inhaled corticosteroids use, n (%) 207 (16.6) 383 (15.6) 0.47 4 (6.5) 203 (17.1) 0.028
 Proton Pump Inhibitor use, n (%) 401 (32) 627 (25.6) < 0.001 17 (27.4) 384 (32.3) 0.423
 Statins use, n (%) 285 (22.8) 470 (19.2) 0.011 9 (14.5) 276 (23.2) 0.111
 Steroids use, n (%) 86 (6.8) 208 (8.5) 0.09 4 (6.5) 82 (6.9) 1
Chronic interventions
 Enteric tube feeding, n (%) 11 (0.88) 41 (1.7) 0.05 0 (0) 11 (1) 1
 Haemodialysis, n (%) 12 (1) 40 (1.6) 0.11 0 (0) 12 (1) 1
 Indwelling catheter, n (%) 18 (1.4) 61 (2.5) 0.04 2 (3.2) 16 (1.4) 0.22
Immunosuppressive conditions
 Active solid tumour, n (%) 88 (7) 199 (8.1) 0.27 1 (1.6) 87 (7.3) 0.12
 HIV infection, n (%) 28 (2.24) 95 (3.9) 0.009 2 (3.2) 26 (2.2) 0.64
 AIDS, n (%) 15 (1.2) 50 (2) 0.08 2 (3.2) 13 (1.1) 0.16
 Aplastic anaemia, n (%) 6 (0.3) 8 (0.3) 0.57 0 (0) 6 (0.5) 1
 Asplenia, n (%) 6 (0.3) 6 (0.2) 0.24 0 (0) 6 (0.5) 1
 Biological drug use, n (%) 14 (1.1) 23 (0.9) 0.60 0 (0) 14 (1.2) 1
 Chemotherapy in the last 3 months, n (%) 48 (3.8) 97 (3.8) 0.92 1 (1.6) 47 (4) 0.51
 Haematological malignancy, n (%) 73 (5.8) 89 (3.6) =0.003 2 (3.2) 71 (6) 0.57
 Immunocompromised patients, n (%) 230 (18.4) 435 (17.7) 0.62 12 (19.4) 218 (18.4) 0.84
 Neutropenia, n (%) 13 (1.8) 35 (1.4) 0.36 0 (0) 13 (1.1) 1
Other chronic medical conditions
 Chronic renal failure, n (%) 144 (11.5) 256 (10.4) 0.31 2 (3.2) 142 (12) 0.036
 Dementia, n (%) 136 (18.9) 272 (11.1) 0.87 5 (8.1) 131 (11) 0.46
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 266 (21.3) 516 (21) 0.86 7 (11.3) 259 (21.8) 0.049
 Liver disease, n (%) 59 (4.72) 81 (3.03) 0.36 4 (6.5) 55 (4.6) 0.53
 Malnutrition, n (%) 95 (7.6) 0 (0) 0.08 4 (6.5) 91 (7.7) 1
 Mental illness, n (%) 83 (6.6) 0 (0) 0.73 4 (6.5) 79 (6.6) 1
 Prosthetic material, n (%) 41 (3.3) 75 (3) 0.76 1 (1.6) 40 (3.4) 0.71
 Recurrent skin infections, n (%) 14 (1.1) 44 (1.8) 0.13 1 (1.6) 13 (1.1) 0.51
Other non-medical conditions
 Bedridden, n (%) 110 (8.8) 305 (12.4) 0.001 3 (4.8) 86 (7.2) 0.61
 Contact sport, n (%) 1 (0.1) 5 0.67 0 (0) 1 (1) 1.0
 Healthcare worker, n (%) 20 (1.6) 27 (1.1) 0.21 5 (7.9) 15 (1.3) 0.002
 Homeless, n (%) 12 (1.8) 23 (0.9) 1.0 0 (0) 12 (1) 1
 Living in crowded conditions, n (%) 236 (18.9) 485 (19.8) 0.54 0 (0) 9 (0.8) 1
 Nursing home resident, n (%) 86 (6.88) 216 (8.8) 0.042 11 (17.7) 225 (18.9) 0.81
 Chronic aspiration, n (%) 71 (5.7) 186 (7.6) 0.034 0 (0) 62 (5.3) 0.047
Previous infections/colonization
 Prior mycobacterial diseases, n (%) 31 (2.5) 65 (2.6) 0.82 3 (4.8) 28 (2.4) 0.19
 Prior MRSA infection/colonisation, n (%) 30 (2.4) 56 (2.3) 0.82 0 (0) 30 (2.5) 0.39
 Prior ESBL-producing bacterial infection, n (%) 21 (1.7) 34 (1.4) 0.48 1 (1.6) 20 (1.7) 1
 Prior Pseudomonas spp. infection, n (%) 30 (2.4) 71 (2.9) 0.45 1 (1.6) 29 (2.4) 1
Current pneumonia episode
 Severe CAP, n (%) 314 (25.1) 716 (29.2) 0.009 21 (33) 293 (24.7) 0.103
 ICU or HDU admission, n (%) 277 (22.2) 619 (25.2) =0.039 18 (28) 259 (22) 0.181
 Either invasive or non-invasive ventilation, n (%) 206 (16.5) 456 (17.9) 0.11 12 (19) 194 (16.3) 0.531
 Invasive ventilation, n (%) 114 (9.1) 240 (9.4) 0.55 3 (4.8) 111 (9.3) 0.230
 Non-invasive ventilation, n (%) 118 (9.4) 231 (9) 1 9 (14.3) 109 (9.1) 0.161
  1. CAP; Community-acquired pneumonia, MRSA; Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, COPD; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV 1 ; Forced expiratory volume during the first second, CAD; Coronary artery disease, ESBL; extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, LRTI; lower respiratory tract infections