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Table 5 Associations of the serotype with the signs and symptoms of HFMD (n = 576 cases, missing 36 cases)

From: Molecular epidemiology and clinical features of hand, foot and mouth disease in northern Thailand in 2016: a prospective cohort study

Signs and symptoms Coxsackievirus
n (%)
Enterovirus A71
n (%)
Other human enterovirus
n (%)
Nonhuman enterovirus
n (%)
χ2 p-value
Rash on palms and soles Yes 36 (94.7) 114 (81.4) 52 (83.9) 288 (85.7) 4.437 0.218
No 2 (5.3) 26 (18.6) 10 (16.1) 48 (14.3)
Rash on buttocks, knee and elbow Yes 14 (36.8) 20 (14.3) 26 (41.9) 106 (31.6) 22.026 < 0.001*
No 24 (63.2) 120 (85.7) 36 (58.1) 230 (68.4)
Fever Yes 24 (63.2) 76 (54.3) 56 (90.3) 214 (63.7) 24.462 < 0.001*
No 14 (36.8) 64 (45.7) 6 (9.67 122 (36.3)
Sore throat or mouth ulcer Yes 36 (94.7) 130 (92.9) 54 (87.1) 274 (81.6) 13.258 0.004*
No 2 (5.3) 10 (7.1) 8 (12.9) 62 (18.4)
Weakness Yes 10 (26.3) 14 (10.0) 8 (12.9) 58 (17.3) 7.686 0.053
No 28 (73.7) 126 (90.0) 54 (87.1) 278 (82.7)
Anorexia Yes 20 (52.6) 58 (41.4) 20 (32.3) 130 (38.7) 4.408 0.221
No 18 (47.4) 82 (58.6) 42 (67.7) 206 (61.3)
Diarrhea Yes 2 (5.3) 6 (4.3) 2 (3.2) 32 (9.5) 5.452 0.129a
No 36 (94.7) 134 (95.7) 60 (96.8) 304 (90.5)
Lethargy Yes 10 (26.3) 10 (7.1) 8 (12.9) 30 (8.9) 13.433 0.004*
No 28 (73.7) 130 (92.9) 54 (87.1) 306 (91.1)
Malaise Yes 6 (15.8) 4 (2.9) 6 (9.7) 6 (1.8) 18.967 < 0.001*,a
No 32 (84.2) 136 (97.1) 56 (90.3) 330 (98.2)
Vomiting Yes 4 (10.5) 4 (2.9) 4 (6.5) 24 (7.1) 4.855 0.168a
No 34 (89.5) 136 (97.1) 58 (93.5) 312 (92.9)
  1. *Statistically significant at α = 0.05
  2. aFisher’s exact test