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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable analyses for the identification of factors associated with human enteroviruses among HFMD patients

From: Molecular epidemiology and clinical features of hand, foot and mouth disease in northern Thailand in 2016: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Enterovirus OR 95% CI p-value ORadj 95% CI p-value
n (%)
Sex
 Male 154 59.2 1.16 0.84–1.60 0.381    
 Female 106 40.8 1.00      
Age (years)
  < 2 146 56.2 0.73 0.48–1.12 0.153    
 2–3 58 22.3 0.68 0.42–1.12 0.130    
  > 3 56 21.5 1.00      
Residential area
 Rural 150 57.7 1.00      
 Municipal 110 42.3 0.99 0.71–1.37 0.940    
Participated in a group activity 2 weeks before disease onset
 No 66 25.4 0.76 0.52–1.11 0.150    
 Yes 194 74.6 1.00      
Breastfeeding
 No 14 5.4 2.78 1.20–6.43 0.017 3.74 1.53–9.10 0.004*
  ≤ 6 months 124 47.7 2.46 1.75–3.46 < 0.001* 2.52 1.76 – 3.61 < 0.001*
  > 6 months 122 46.9 1.00    1.00   
History of vaccination
 Complete and timely 242 93.1 1.00      
 Incomplete or/and not timely 18 6.9 0.74 0.41–1.36 0.335    
Day time care
 Home 78 30.0 1.00      
 Days care center 154 59.2 1.28 0.90–1.83 0.167    
 School 28 10.8 1.41 0.79–2.53 0.243    
Congenital disease
 No 248 95.4 1.00      
 Yes 12 4.6 0.90 0.43–1.90 0.778    
Regularly drug use
 No 254 97.7 1.00      
 Yes 6 2.3 2.06 0.57–7.36 0.268    
Family member (persons)
  < 4 136 52.3 1.00      
4   - 7 98 37.7 1.24 0.88–1.74 0.225    
  > 7 26 10.0 1.52 0.84–2.72 0.164    
Family members < 6 years old (persons)
  ≤ 2 248 95.4 1.00      
  > 2 12 4.6 1.02 0.47–2.19 0.967    
History of HFMD previous year
 No 228 87.7 1.00      
 Yes 32 12.3 0.93 0.58–1.51 0.780    
Religion         
 Buddhism 256 98.5 1.49 0.44–5.00 0.520    
 Christianity 4 1.5 1.00      
Father’s occupation
 Unemployed 32 12.3 1.00      
 Government employee 6 2.3 0.35 0.13–1.01 0.051    
 armer 56 21.5 0.69 0.38–1.25 0.220    
 Daily wage employee 132 50.8 0.83 0.48–1.41 0.480    
 Other 34 13.1 0.82 0.43–1.59 0.557    
Mother’s occupation
 Unemployed 50 19.2 1.00    1.00   
 Government employees 6 2.3 1.18 0.42–3.32 0.754 0.95 0.33–2.74 0.946
  Farmer 46 17.7 1.75 1.06–2.90 0.030* 1.88 1.11 – 3.16 0.018*
 Daily wage employee 114 43.9 2.28 1.50–3.47 < 0.001* 2.18 1.41 – 3.37 < 0.001*
 Unprofessional skilled job 44 16.9 2.47 1.45–4.23 0.001* 2.64 1.52 – 4.61 0.001*
Major caregiver
 Father 10 3.9 1.00      
 Mother 122 46.9 0.22 0.07–0.71 0.011*    
 Relative 92 35.4 0.34 0.10–1.10 0.072    
 Father and mother 36 13.8 1.03 0.28–3.83 0.966    
Marital status of caregiver
 Single 8 3.1 1.00      
 Married 230 88.4 0.92 0.36–2.36 0.855    
 Divorce 22 8.5 0.98 0.33–2.91 0.974    
Education level of caregiver
 Not educated 68 26.2 1.00      
 Primary school 82 31.5 1.33 0.87–2.03 0.185    
 Secondary school 34 13.1 1.10 0.65–1.88 0.716    
 High school 32 12.3 0.65 0.39–1.10 0.108    
 Vocational school or higher 44 16.9 2.64 1.49–4.68 0.001*    
Daily cleaning of food and drink containers
 No 6 2.3 1.00      
 Yes 254 97.7 3.38 1.37–8.33 0.008*    
  1. *Statistically significant at α=0.05