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Table 2 (Sero) prevalence ratios of CT for potential determinants, by ethnic group. Results of stratified unadjusted Poisson regression with robust variance

From: Differences in Chlamydia trachomatis seroprevalence between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by socioeconomic status, sexual healthcare seeking behavior or sexual risk behavior: a cross-sectional analysis in the HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study

  Dutch (n = 392) South Asian Surinamese (n = 373) African Surinamese (n = 317) Ghanaian (n = 193) Turkish (n = 389) Moroccan (n = 337) Total (n = 2001)
PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI) PR (95% CI)
Demographics
 Gender
  Male 1 1 1* 1 1 1 1*
  Female 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 1.08 (0.84–1.37) 1.18 (1.01–1.38) 0.96 (0.79–1.18) 0.80 (0.59–1.09) 1.21 (0.90–1.63) 1.12 (1.01–1.23)
 Migration generation
  First N/A 1 1 1* 1 1 1***
  Second N/A 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 0.97 (0.85–1.12) 0.73 (0.53–0.99) 1.06 (0.77–1.45) 0.95 (0.70–1.29) 0.82 (0.74–0.91)
 Age
  18–24 years 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  25–29 years 0.98 (0.70–1.36) 1.31 (0.93–1.83) 1.03 (0.87–1.22) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 1.11 (0.73–1.68) 0.88 (0.58–1.32) 0.98 (0.86–1.11)
  30–34 years 0.99 (0.70–1.38) 1.45 (1.05–2.00)* 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 1.17 (0.93–1.47) 1.08 (0.72–1.63) 0.96 (0.65–1.41) 1.01 (0.89–1.14)
Socioeconomic status
 Educational level
  Low 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Intermediate 1.24 (0.65–2.39) 1.05 (0.76–1.44) 0.97 (0.81–1.17) 0.76 (0.62–0.94)* 0.83 (0.60–1.14) 1.01 (0.71–1.44) 0.99 (0.87–1.11)
  High 1.09 (0.59–2.04) 0.93 (0.66–1.32) 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.79 (0.60–1.05) 0.66 (0.42–1.04) 0.95 (0.63–1.42) 0.84 (0.74–0.96)*
 Occupational level
  Low 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Intermediate 0.69 (0.43–1.10) 1.13 (0.83–1.53) 1.09 (0.92–1.28) 0.74 (0.53–1.02) 0.86 (0.61–1.21) 0.99 (0.68–1.36) 0.91 (0.80–1.03)
  High 0.82 (0.58–1.15) 1.11 (0.81–1.52) 0.90 (0.71–1.14) 0.77 (0.49–1.20) 0.62 (0.38–1.01) 0.81 (0.52–1.27) 0.80 (0.70–0.91)**
 Sexual risk behavior
  Number of lifetime sex partnersa 1.32 (1.17–1.50)*** 1.19 (1.06–1.33)** 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 1.02 (0.90–1.17) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 1.16 (1.11–1.21)***
  Age at sexual debutb 0.90 (0.84–0.98)* 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.96 (0.93–1.00)* 0.96 (0.92–1.00)* 0.96 (0.93–1.00)* 0.95 (0.93–0.96)***
 Sexual partners and condom use (preceding 6 months)
  No sexual contact 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Steady partnerc 0.97 (0.64–1.48) 1.02 (0.72–1.43) 1.16 (0.89–1.52) 1.11 (0.86–1.43) 1.16 (0.75–1.79) 1.53 (0.95–2.45) 1.11 (0.96–1.29)
  Consistent condom used 1.32 (0.77–2.26) 1.16 (0.71–1.90) 1.40 (1.04–1.87)* 0.42 (0.16–1.13) 0.88 (0.43–1.79) 0.56 (0.20–1.54) 1.10 (0.88–1.36)
  Inconsistent condom use d 1.37 (0.87–2.16) 1.41 (0.86–2.29) 1.34 (1.00–1.80) 0.92 (0.58–1.47) 1.35 (0.75–2.45) 2.44 (1.38–4.30)** 1.42 (1.18–1.70)***
Sexual health seeking behavior
 HIV testing (preceding 6 months)
  No 1 1 1* 1 1* 1* 1***
  Yes 1.24 (0.87–1.77) 1.38 (1.00–1.92) 1.16 (1.00–1.33) 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 1.68 (1.10–2.54) 1.56 (1.06–2.30) 1.51 (1.35–1.68)
 STI testing (preceding 6 months)
  No 1* 1*** 1 1 1 1 1***
  Yes 1.38 (1.04–1.83) 1.64 (1.26–2.13) 1.07 (0.93–1.24) 1.15 (0.93–1.43) 1.48 (0.96–2.29) 1.18 (0.80–1.75) 1.45 (1.31–1.61)
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence intervals, N/A not applicable, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, STI Sexually transmitted infection, CT Chlamydia trachomatis
  2. aPer increase of 1 natural log
  3. bPer 1 year increase
  4. cSex with exclusive sex partner, regardless of condom use
  5. dHas had a casual partner, irrespective of having had a steady partner
  6. *overall p < 0.05
  7. **overall p < 0.01
  8. ***overall p < 0.001