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Table 2 The prevalence of pre-diabetes and DM among TB patients, in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2016 (n = 831)

From: Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Hanoi, Vietnam

  Total TB patients evaluated for DM (n) TB patients with pre-DM (n) Prevalence of pre-DM
(%; 95% CI)
p value* TB patients with DM (n) Prevalence of DM (%; 95% CI) p value*
Total 831 241 29.0 (25.9–32.1)   114 13.7 (11.4–16.1)  
Sex     0.274    0.007
Male 549 166 30.2 (26.4–34.1)   88 16.0 (13.0–19.1)  
Female 282 75 26.6 (21.4–31.8)   26 9.2 (5.8–12.6)  
Age, years     <  0.001    <  0.001
15–24 92 19 20.7 (12.2–29.1)   5 5.4 (0.7–10.1)  
25–34 133 23 17.3 (10.8–23.8)   6 4.5 (0.9–8.1)  
35–44 142 37 26.1 (18.7–33.4)   16 11.3 (6.0–16.5)  
45–54 137 47 34.3 (26.3–42.4)   27 19.7 (13.0–26.5)  
55–64 175 61 34.9 (27.7–42.0)   33 18.9 (13.0–24.7)  
  ≥ 65 152 54 35.5 (27.8–43.2)   27 17.8 (11.6–23.9)  
Education     0.002    0.624
Primary or lower 143 49 34.3 (26.4–42.1)   19 13.3 (7.7–18.9)  
Secondary; high school 531 163 30.7 (26.8–34.6)   77 14.5 (11.5–17.5)  
Colleagues/University or higher 157 29 18.5 (12.3–24.6)   18 11.5 (6.4–16.5)  
Occupation     0.002    0.328
Unemployed 113 35 31.0 (22.3–39.6)   15 13.3 (6.9–19.6)  
Farmer 259 96 37.1 (31.1–43.0)   28 10.8 (7.0–14.6)  
Self-employed 49 15 30.6 (17.2–44.0)   9 18.4 (7.1–29.6)  
Government employed/ Student; pupil / retired 410 95 23.2 (19.1–27.3)   62 15.1 (11.6–18.6)  
Marital status     0.062    0.481
Single 158 34 21.5 (15.0–28.0)   17 10.8 (5.9–15.6)  
Married 629 192 30.5 (26.9–34.1)   91 14.5 (11.7–17.2)  
Divorced/separated 44 15 34.1 (19.5–48.7)   6 13.6 (3.1–24.2)  
Residence     0.084    0.107
Rural 430 136 31.6 (27.2–36.0)   51 11.9 (8.8–14.9)  
Urban 401 105 26.2 (21.9–30.5)   63 15.7 (12.1–19.3)  
Monthly income (VND)     <  0.001    0.636
  < 3,000,000 (~  132.3 US$) 468 153 32.7 (28.4–37.0)   60 12.8 (9.8–15.9)  
3,000,000 - 5,000,000 (~  132.3–220.5 US$) 220 65 29.5 (23.5–35.6)   35 15.9 (11.0–20.8)  
  > 5,000,000 (~  220.5 US$) 143 23 16.1 (10.0–22.2)   19 13.3 (7.7–18.9)  
Socio-economic status     0.794    0.790
Poor/ near-poor household 103 31 30.1 (21.1–39.1)   15 14.6 (7.6–21.5)  
Medium household and above 728 210 28.8 (25.5–32.1)   99 13.6 (11.1–16.1)  
BMI, kg/m2     0.077    0.304
Underweight, < 18.5 289 94 32.5 (27.1–38.0)   38 13.1 (9.2–17.1)  
Normal, 18.5–24.9 518 142 27.4 (23.6–31.3)   69 13.3 (10.4–16.3)  
Overweight, > = 25 24 5 20.8 (3.3–38.4)   7 29.2 (9.6–48.8)  
  1. TB Tuberculosis; DM Diabetes mellitus; CI Confidence interval; SD Standard deviation; VND Vietnam dong; BMI Body mass index
  2. *p value by Kruskal-Wallis test and Cuzick test were used for the nonparametric data and to test for trend across ordered groups