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Table 1 Associations of participant characteristics with schistosome infection

From: Schistosoma mansoni infection and socio-behavioural predictors of HIV risk: a cross-sectional study in women from Uganda

Participant characteristic Entire cohort (n = 58) Schistosoma spp. ag -positive (N = 33) Schistosoma spp. ag -negative (N = 25) OR for association with schistosomiasis (95% CI) P value (α = 0.05)
Median age (IQR) 27.5 (23.8–32.0) 25.0 (22.5–29.5) 30.0 (25.0–34.0) 0.910 (0.830–0.999) 0.047
Married, % 60.7 (34/56) 50.0 (16/32) 79.2 (19/24) 0.263 (0.079–0.878) 0.030
Sexual behaviour
 Hormonal contraceptive use, % 30.4 (17/56) 12.5 (4/32) 54.2 (13/24) 0.121 (0.032–0.452) 0.002
  DMPAa, % 19.6 (11/56) 9.4 (3/32) 33.3 (8/24)
  NetEna, % 8.9 (5/56) 3.1 (1/32) 16.7 (4/24)
  Oral pill, % 1.8 (1/56) 0 (0/32) 4.2 (1/24)
Sex in last 3 days
 PSA+, % 41.8 (23/55) 31.3 (10/32) 56.5 (13/23) 0.350 (0.115–1.064) 0.064b
 Self-reported, % 29.6 (16/54) 26.7 (8/30) 33.3 (8/24) 0.727 (0.225–2.349) 0.595
 Reported condom use in last sex, % 19.2 (10/52) 20.0 (6/30) 18.2 (4/22) 1.125 (0.276–4.585) 1.00
 Presence of eosinophiliaa, % 14.3 (8/56) 18.8 (6/32) 8.3 (2/24) 2.538 (0.465–13.868) 0.282
 HSV-2 seropositive, % 58.6 (34/58) 63.6 (21/33) 52.0 (13/25) 1.615 (0.561–4.652) 0.374
Genital conditions
 Presence of tested STI, % 12.1 (7/58) 15.2 (5/33) 8.0 (2/25) 2.054 (0.364–11.585) 0.408
  T.vaginalis 1.7 (1/58) 0.0 (0/33) 4.0 (1/25)
  C. trachomatis 8.6 (5/58) 15.2 (5/33) b 0.0 (0/25)
  N. gonorrhoeae 1.7 (1/58) 0.0 (0/33) 4.0 (1/25)
 Self-reporting genital condition in past month, % 30.9 (17/55) 38.7 (12/31) 20.8 (5/24) 2.4 (0.707–8.144) 0.160
Presence of bacterial vaginosis, % 30.6 (11/36) 20.0 (4/20) 43.8 (7/16) 0.321 (0.074–1.405) 0.159
  1. ag antigen, OR odds ratio, DMPA depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, NET-EN norethisterone enanthate, PSA prostate-specific antigen, STI sexually transmitted infection; aeosinophilia was defined as > 450 eosinophils per ul of blood; b trend. Data were assessed using univariate binomial logistic regression with the Schistosoma spp. ag-free (CCA-negative) group as the reference category. When OR is above 1, there is a positive association of given factor with schistosomiasis; OR value above 1 represents inverse relationship of given factor with schistosomiasis. OR for age is a per year OR