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Table 3 Crude and adjusted ORs for the Association Between Patient’s Characteristics and the Risk of Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH) among all Patients Recorded in Selected Studies

From: Acute histoplasmosis in immunocompetent travelers: a systematic review of literature

Covariate a DH (%) Present non-DH Absent Crude OR Adjusted OR b (95% CI) b
56/573 (9.7) 517/573 (90.2)
Age 29 (22–31) 31 (23–45) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.03 (0.99–1.07)
Male 68.7% 63.4% 1.16 (0.66–2.14) 1.13 (0.37–3.43)
Continent of destination, N (%)
USA-Canada 3.8% 22.5% 1.00 [Reference] 1.00 [Reference]
Central America 58.5% 26.9% 13.01 (3.82–81.43) 1.28 (0.21–7.67)
South America 30.2% 27.1% 6.66 (1.84–42.72) 1.61 (0.27–9.57)
Africa 5.7% 18.0% 1.87 (0.30–14.45) 2.38 (0.28–20.71)
Others c 1.9% 5.5% 2.05 (0.09–22.18) 0.33 (0.02–4.74)
Activity d, N (%)
Caves/Bat guano 64.2% 60.5% 1.18 (0.66–2.11) 34.20 (5.29–220.93)
Outdoor activities 42.8% 33.7% 1.48 (0.84–2.57) 4.61 (1.09–19.56)
Bird_chickens 10.7% 19.1% 0.50 (0.19–1.13) 7.19 (0.84–61.57)
Inhalation_soil 37.5% 16.0% 3.13 (1.72–5.62) 2.78 (0.94–8.29)
  1. Abbreviations, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. a Relative frequencies are here presented, and the median (interquartile range) is reported for age
  3. b Adjusted for every other covariate through a multivariate logistic regression model
  4. c Includes: Asia, Oceania
  5. d Each activity was entered in the model as a single dummy variable, as most people did more than one activity during the trip. Caves/Bat’s guano: contact with bats excreta and/or visit to a cave. Outdoor activities: forest excursions/trekking, camping or other activities not involving visit to caves or direct contact with bats’ excreta. Bird_chickens: activities involving contact with chickens or other birds. Inhalation_soil: all activities involving building construction, renovation, excavation (biologists, building contractors, construction workers, soldiers, volunteers involved in churches or other buildings renovation)