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Table 2 Baseline Demographic and Travel Characteristics of the Entire Cohort of Immunocompetent Travelers

From: Acute histoplasmosis in immunocompetent travelers: a systematic review of literature

Characteristic Entire Cohort
N, %
Total 573
Median age, years (IQR) 29 (23–43)
Male, N (%) 244 (64.0)
Median AR a, % (IQR) 90 (73.2–100.0)
Continent of destination, N (%)
USA-Canada 117 (20.8)
Central America 168 (29.8)
South America 154 (27.4)
Africa 95 (16.9)
Others b 29 (5.1)
Activity c, N (%)
Caves/Bat guano 349 (60.9)
Outdoor activities 198 (34.5)
Bird_chickens 105 (18.3)
Inhalation_soil 104 (18.1)
  1. Abbreviations, AR attack rate, IQR interquartile range
  2. a Calculated as the proportion of infected people in the travel group. We identified 47 travel groups in the cohort
  3. b Includes: Asia, Oceania
  4. c Frequencies exceed 100%, as most people did more than one activity during the trip. Caves/Bat’s guano: contact with bats excreta and/or visit to a cave. Outdoor activities: forest excursions/trekking, camping or other activities not involving visit to caves or direct contact with bats’ excreta. Bird_chickens: activities involving contact with chickens or other non-mammal birds. Inhalation_soil: all activities involving building construction, renovation, excavation (biologists, building contractors, construction workers, soldiers, volunteers involved in churches or other buildings renovation)