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Table 1 Studies selected for the systematic review

From: Acute histoplasmosis in immunocompetent travelers: a systematic review of literature

  Reference Publication year N° cases Country of origin Visited continent Visited country Reason of travel Exposure Cluster Syndromic classification Therapy Type of therapy
1 [8] 2015 1 Swiss SA Brazil, Argentina   C no AP yes itra
2 [16] 1988 15 NS CA Costa rica ST B yes AP no  
3 [17] 2007 4 Spain SA Ecuador V C, S yes AP no  
4 [18] 2004 1 France SA Colombia T B no AP yes NS
5 [19] 2011 2 Italy SA Ecuador   O no AP, DH 1 yes Itra
6 [20] 1992 1 Germany SA Ecuador T O no AP no  
7 [21] 2013 1 Israel SA, A Jordan, Bolivia, Brazil, Ethiopia, Angola T O no DH yes Itra
8 [22] 1995 2 France SA Guyana P O, S no AP yes Excision
9 [23] 2011 5 Spain A, SA, CA Angola, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Ecuador T, P, SP, V B, O no AP no  
10 [24] 2002 14 Canada CA Belize ST O yes AP 1 yes itra
11 [25] 2013 1 USA SA Peru V B, S no DH yes AmB, itra
12 [26] 1999 1 France SA Guyana P O, S no DH yes itra
13 [27] 2013 12 Europe, Africa A Uganda ST O yes AP 5 yes 4 itra, 1 keto
.14 [28] 1979 10   A South Africa SP B yes 9 AP, 1 DH 1 yes AmB
15 [29] 1997 1 France SA Guyana P O, S no AP yes Itra
16 [30] 2006 1 Netherland A Ghana T B, O no AP no  
17 [31] 1957 2 South africa A South Africa SP B yes AP no  
18 [32] 2012 1 Germany SA Costa Rica T B, O no AP yes itra
19 [33] 2002 6 Germany CA Cuba BIO B, S yes 3 AP, 3 DH yes itra
20 [34] 2010 3 Japan   Malaysia T O yes AP no  
21 [35] 2003 262 USA   Mexico T O, S yes AP yes NK
22 [36] 2000 4 Italy CA, SA Guatemala, Dominican republic, Peru T, SP B, O, S no 3 AP, 1 DH yes 2keto, 1 itra, 1 amB
23 [37] 2005 1 Italy CA Nicaragua P O, S no AP yes itra
24 [38] 2003 3 Spain CA Nicaragua T B, O yes AP 1 yes itra
25 [39] 1988 11 USA USA Iowa T O, S yes AP no  
26 [40] 2005 9 Spain SA Guatemala V S yes AP no  
27 [41] 2000 7 Spain CA, SA Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Colombia, Peru, Guatemala T, V B, O, S no 1 AP, 8 DH yes itra
28 [42] 1962 3 Europe A South Africa SP B yes DH yes AmB
29 [43] 1990 1 France SA Guyana T O no AP no  
30 [44] 1981 69 USA NA South Carolina CI C yes AP no  
31 [45] 1975 6 Canada CA Puerto Rico ST, TEA B, O yes AP no  
32 [46] 1979 1 Jamaica CA Caribbean TEA B no AP no  
33 [47] 1996 1 Germany CA   T O no AP no  
34 [48] 2008 3 Austria   Mexico T B no DH yes itra
35 [49] 2008 3 Germany CA Antille BIO B, S yes 2 DH, 1 AP yes itra
36 [50] 2012 4 Poland SA Ecuador T B yes DH 2 yes keto
37 [51] 2011 2 France CA Costa Rica T O yes AP 1 yes 1 itra
38 [52] 2003 1 Germany   Mexico, Brazil T O no AP no  
39 [53] 1979 27 USA USA North-Centre Florida V B, O, S yes 8 As, 2 DH
17 AP
2 yes 2 AmB
40 [54] 2004 10 USA CA Costa Rica T B yes AP no  
41 [55] 2013 1 Canada CA Costa Rica   B, O, S no DH yes AmB, itra
42 [56] 2005 2 France SA Venezuela P O, S no AP yes itra
43 [57] 1991 1 France SA Guatemala T O, S no AP yes keto
44 [58] 2014 1 Germany SA Ecuador T O no AP yes itra
45 [59] 1957 64 Europe, NS A South Africa ST, SP B yes AP, 5 As no  
46 [60] 1997 4 Italy SA Peru SP B, C yes DH yes keto
47 [61] 1995 24 Europe, SEA AU New Caledonia SP B yes AP, 3 As 21 yes Keto, itra, AmB
48 [62] 2009 5 Spain CA, SA Peru, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Panama, Ecuador T, BIO, V, P B, C, O, S no 3 AP, 2 DH Yes 1 pulmonary and 2 DH itra
49 [63] 2001 1 Spain SA Peru T B, O no AP yes itra
50 [64] 2014 4 Brazil SA Brazil BIO B yes AP 2 yes itra
51 [65] 1986 6 USA USA Florida ST, P B, S yes AP 4 yes 2Amb,2keto
52 [66] 2006 1 USA CA Guatemala T O no R yes itra
53 [67] 2003 13 France CA Martinica Trekking trip O, S yes 11 DH, 2 AP yes itra
54 [68] 2009 1 Germany CA Antille BIO B, S no AP yes NS
55 [69] 2015 23 Israel USA, CA, SA Guatemala, Costa Rica Peru, Mexico, Bolivia, Indiana, Dominican Republic NS B, O no 14 AP, 9 As Not known  
56 [70] 2011 3 France CA Cuba SP B yes 1 DH, 2 AP yes itra
57 [71] 2007 1 Japan SA Bolivia P O, S no AP yes fluco
58 [72] 1992 1 Italy A   P O, S no AP yes AmB
59 [73] 2000 12 Spain CA, SA Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, Peru V, SP, T B, O, S yes 7 AP, 5 As 8 yes itra
60 [74] 1999 11 USA SA Ecuador ST B yes 1 DH, 8 AP, 2 not possible 4 yes 1 itra, 3 systemic azoles
61 [75] 2008 20 USA CA El Salvador V O, S yes AP Not known  
62 [76] 2003 14 USA CA Nicaragua ST B yes 4 DH, 8 AP, 2 As yes itra
63 [77] 1999 6 Chile SA Ecuador T C, O yes AP yes itra
64 [78] 1966 2 USA USA Missouri, Kentucky T C no AP 1 yes AmB
65 [79] 2015 1 USA USA Southwest T O, S no AP yes itra
66 [80] 2010 4 Brasil SA Brasil SP B yes 2 AP, 2 DH yes  
67 [81] 2012 5 Argentina SA Argentina O C Yes AP No  
68 [82] 2002 1 Chile SA Peru SP B No AP Yes  
69 [83] 2001 31 Venezuela SA Venezuela SP B Yes AP No  
70 [84] 1981 33 colombia SA colombia SP B yes AP no  
71 [85] 1999 1 Taiwan SEA Indonesia P O no DH yes AmB
CTD Negrar   2016 21 Italy SA, CA Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, Cuba T, SP, P B, O, S 16 yes, 5 no 1 DH, 20 AP 11 yes itra
  1. NS not specified, USA United States of America, NA North America, CA Central America, SA South America, A Africa, AU Australia, SEA South East Asia, ST student, V Volunteer, T Tourist, P professional, SP Speleologist, BIO Biologist, CI Correctional Institute TEA Teacher, B Cave_bats, C Birds/chickens, S Moved Soil, O Outdoor activities, DH Disseminated Histoplasmosis, AP Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis, AmB Amphotericin B, Itra Itraconazole, Fluco Fluconazole, Keto Ketoconazole