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Table 2 Adherence to oral PrEP by different measures used

From: A systematic review of adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV – how can we improve uptake and adherence?

Characteristics Adherence
Year Study name Geographical location Population Regimen Any detectable plasma drug (TDF or FTC) (%) Self-report (%) Pill count (%) MEMS (%)
HIV – (non-seroconverters) HIV + (seroconverters)
2010 iPrEx [6] Global MSM/TGW Daily 51 9 95 > 90
2012 Partners study [7] Kenya and Uganda Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples Daily 82 31 92
2012 TDF2 [8] Botswana Heterosexual Daily 80 50 94 84
2012 FEM-PrEP [13] Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa Heterosexual females Daily 24 15 95 88
2012 Kenya safety and adherence study [38] Kenya MSM and female sex workers Daily 83% (IQR 63 to 92)
Time-driven 100 55 (pre-coital), 26 (post-coital)
2013 Partners adherence substudy [17] Kenya and Uganda Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples Daily 99 97
2013 Bangkok tenofovir study [31] Bangkok PWID Daily 67 39 94
2013 Uganda safety and adherence study [35] Uganda Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples Daily 97
Time-driven 100 91 (pre-coital) 45 (post-coital)
2013 ATN 082 (Project PrEPARE) [54] United States Young MSM Daily 20 62
2014 iPrEx extension [15] Global MSM/TGW Daily 71 85 c
2015 VOICE [14] South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe Heterosexual females Daily 29supp 87 (via computer), 90 (face to face) 88
30 87 (via computer), 91 (face to face) 84
2015 Generating adherence Philadelphia [50] United States Young MSM of colour Daily 72
2015 HPTN 067/ADAPTa [36] South Africa Heterosexual females Daily 68 76
Time-driven 56 65
Event-driven 53 53
2015 PROUD [9] United Kingdom MSM Daily 100 c
2015 IPERGAY [10] France and Canada MSM/TGW Event-driven 87 0 29 (suboptimal), 43 (optimal) b
2016 Bangkok MSMa [55] Thailand MSM/TGW Daily 9.8 (complete adherence)
2016 Permanente Cohort [24] USA At-risk Daily 92
2016 The Demo Project [23] USA MSM/TGW Daily 80 d 82
2017 SPARKa [57] United States MSM Daily 90
2017 IPERGAY extension [22] France/Canada MSM/TGW Event-driven 71 e 0 24 (suboptimal), 50 (optimal)
2017 Short term PrEP Mozambiquea [25] Mozambique Heterosexual females Daily 76   
2017 Parisian MSMa [26] France MSM Daily & Event-driven 83
2017 PRELUDEa [27, 28] Australia Gay/bisexual males Daily 51 d
2017 PROUD adherencea [29] UK MSM Daily 98
2017 Pluspillsa [30] South Africa Adolescents Daily 38 92
2017 Brazil Demoa [65] Brasil MSM/TGW Daily 74
  1. a Abstract available only, b At most recent sexual encounter, c Of participants reporting good adherence, d Dried blood spot concentration, eOnly 33% of participants had plasma TDF concentrations consistent with taking > 4 tablets per week