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Table 4 Published data on hepatitis C seroprevalence in Malawi

From: Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi: systematic review

Population Ref Year Location Method Prevalence (n/total) Prevalence (%, (95% CI))
General Populations
 Pregnant women [20] 1989–1994 QECH, Blantyre Anti-HCV (Biorad) 2/70 2.9 (0.8, 9.8)
 Pregnant women, at delivery [18] 1993–1995 Shire Valley Ortho anti-HCV (Ortho Diagnostics) 18/100 18.0 (11.7, 26.7)
 Pregnant women [20] 2004–2008 QECH, Health Centres Blantyre Anti-HCV (Biorad) 8/138 5.8 (3.0, 11.0)
 Community, rural adults [20] 2001 Mwanza District Anti-HCV (Biorad) 9/99 9.0 (4.9, 16.4)
 Non-pregnant women (intravaginal MTZ gel RCT) [20] 2003–2005 QECH, Blantyre Anti-HCV (Biorad) 9/146 6.1 (3.3, 11.3)
 Male workers at sugar estate [17] 1998 Nchalo Ortho anti-HCV (Ortho Diagnostics) 35/279 10.0 (7.0, 14.1)
 Blood donors [32] 1996 KCH, Lilongwe Anti-HCV EIA (Roche)
Confirmed with Anti-HCV (Abbott)
4/100 4.0 (1.6, 9.8)
 Blood donors [21] 2001 Ntechu 1. Murex anti-HCV 10/148 6.8 (3.7, 12.0)
2. HCV RNA by in-house PCR 1/140 0.7 (0.1, 3.9)
HIV positive populations
 HIV-positive pregnant women, at delivery [18] 1993–1995 Shire Valley Ortho anti-HCV (Ortho Diagnostics) 6/50 12.0 (5.6, 23.8)
 HIV-positive pregnant women [23] 2008–2009 Blantyre 1. Innotest HCV Ab IV (Innogenetics), 8/309 2.6 (1.3, 5.0)
2. Versant HCV RNA 1.0 assay (Siemens) 1/309 0.3 (0.1, 1.8)
 HIV positive patients [24] 2005 QECH, Blantyre Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab (Biorad) confirmed with ADVIA Centaur anti-HCV) and InnoLIA HCV immunoassay (Innogenetics) 17/300 5.7 (3.6, 8.9)
 HIV-positive male workers at sugar estate [17] 1998 Nchalo Ortho anti-HCV Ab (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) 28/280 10.0 (7.0, 14.1)
 HIV-positive pregnant women [20] 2000–2004 QECH, Blantyre Anti-HCV (Biorad) 8/148 5.4 (2.8, 10.3)
 HIV positive adults starting ART [31] 2014–15 Lilongwe 1. HCV IgG Architect (Abbott) 5/227 2.2 (0.9, 5.1)
2. RealTime HCV RNA (Abbott) 0/227 0.0 (0.0, 1.7)
 HIV positive patients on ART for > 10 years [33] 2014–16 Chiradzulu OraQuick HCV Rapid antibody test (Orasure) 2/385 0.5 (0.1, 1.9)
  1. Abbreviations: QECH Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, HCV hepatitis C virus Biorad: Hercules, CA, USA; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics: Raritan, New Jersey, United States; Roche: Basel Switzerland; Abbott: Illinois, USA; Innogenetics: Ghent, Belgium; Siemens: Munich, Germany; Orasure: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States