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Table 1 Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence in Malawi: published data from 1990 to 2018

From: Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi: systematic review

Population Ref Year Location Laboratory method Prevalence (n/total) Prevalence (%), (95% CI)
General Populations
 Pregnant women [20] 1989–1994 QECH, Blantyre MONOLISA HBsAg ULTRA (Biorad) 0/70 0.0 (0.0, 5.2)
 Pregnant women, at delivery [18] 1993–1995 Shire Valley Bioelisa HBsAg (Biokit, S.A.) 12/100 12.0 (7.0, 19.8)
 Pregnant women [20] 2004–2008 QECH, Health Centres Blantyre MONOLISA HBsAg ULTRA (Biorad) 16/134 11.9 (7.5, 18.5)
 Male workers at sugar estate [17] 1998 Nchalo Auszyme monoclonal EIA (Abbott) 40/280 14.3 (10.7, 18.9)
 Community, rural adults [20] 2001 Mwanza District MONOLISA HBsAg ULTRA (Biorad) 7/98 7.1 (3.5, 14.0)
 Non-pregnant women (intravaginal MTZ gel RCT) [20] 2003–2005 QECH, Blantyre MONOLISA HBsAg ULTRA (Biorad) 8/137 5.8 (3.0, 11.1)
 HIV-negative partners in a serodiscordant couple [19] 2007–2010 Blantyre Lilongwe HBsAg ELISA NS 26/433 6.0 (4.1, 8.7)
 Blood donors [21] 2001 Ntechu HBsAg ELISA NS 13/159 8.2 (4.8, 13.5)
HIV-positive populations
 HIV-positive pregnant women, at delivery [18] 1993–1995 Shire Valley Bioelisa HBsAg (Biokit, S.A.) 8/50 16.0 (8.3, 28.5)
 HIV-positive pregnant women [20] 2000–2004 QECH, Blantyre MONOLISA HBsAg ULTRA (Biorad) 6/156 3.8 (1.8, 8.1)
 HIV-positive pregnant women [22] 2004–2009 Lilongwe Vitros Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) 103/2049 5.0 (4.2, 6.1)
 HIV-positive pregnant women [23] 2008–2009 Blantyre Murex HBsAg Version 3 with Confirmatory Assay (Murex Biotech) 27/309 8.7 (6.1, 12.4)
 HIV positive: male workers at sugar estate [17] 1998 Nchalo Auszyme monoclonal EIA (Abbott) 32/189 16.9 (12.3, 22.9)
 HIV-positive adults [24] 2005 QECH, Blantyre Bioelisa HBsAg (Biokit, S.A.) 20/300 6.7 (4.4, 10.1)
 HIV positive adults, ART starters [25] 2007–2009 QECH, Blantyre Bioelisa HBsAg (Biokit, S.A.) 133/1117 11.9 (10.1, 13.9)
 HIV-positive adults in sero-discordant couple [19] 2007–2010 Blantyre Lilongwe HBsAg ELISA NS 26/432 6.0 (4.1, 8.7)
 HIV-infected children [26] 2008–2010 Lilongwe Genetic Systems HBsAg 3.0 (Bio-Rad) 2/91 2.2 (0.6, 7.7)
  1. Abbreviations: QECH Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre. This is a tertiary referral hospital, MTZ metronidazole, RCT randomised controlled trial. Biorad: HBsAg ELISA, Biorad, Hercules, CA, USA; Bioelisa: HBsAg 3.0 Biokit SA Barcelona, Spain; Ortho Clinical Diagnositics: Raritan, New Jersey, United States: Siemens: ADVIA Centaur, Siemens, Munich, Germany; Abbott: Murex HBsAg, Abbott, Illinois, USA; HBsAg ELISA NS- manufacturer not specified