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Table 1 The most important clinical characteristics of patients with CR/MDR-PA infection or colonization

From: Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Estonian hospitals

  All (n = 92) Infection (n = 68) Colonization (n = 24) OR (95% CI)
Demographic characteristics
 Male sex (%) 56 (61) 44 (65) 12 (52) 1.8 (0.7–4.7)
 Age: median; years (IQR) 68 (52–74) 69 (51–74) 66 (52–75)  
 Patients ≥65 years (%) 52 (57) 37 (54) 15 (63) 0.7 (0.3–1.9)
Previous contact with health care system
 Hospitalization within 90 days (%) 35 (38) 25 (37) 10 (42) 0.8 (0.3–2.1)
 Long-term healthcare facilities stay within 90 days (%) 5 (5) 4 (6) 1 (4) 1.4 (0.2–13.5)
 Antibiotic therapy in previous 90 days (%) 82 (89) 60 (88) 22 (92) 0.7 (0.1–3.5)
 Surgery in previous 30 days (%) 53 (58) 38 (56) 15 (63) 0.8 (0.3–2.0)
 Intensive care unit stay; duration in days: median (IQR) 57 (62); 15 (8–24.5) 40 (59) 17 (71) 0.6 (0.2–1.6)
Invasive procedures in previous 30 days
 Bronchoscopy 30 (33) 25 (37) 5 (21) 2.2 (0.7–6.7)
 Hemodialysis 17 (19) 13 (19) 4 (17) 1.2 (0.3–4.1)
 Endoscopy 17 (18) 14 (21) 3 (13) 1.8 (0.5–7.0)
 Other 16 (17) 10 (15) 6 (25) 0.5 (0.2–1.6)
Invasive device use on the microorganism isolation day
 Mechanical ventilation of the lungs 47 (51) 34 (50) 13 (54) 0.8 (0.3–2.2)
 Central venous catheter 48 (52) 33 (49) 15 (63) 0.6 (0.2–1.5)
 Urinary catheter 51 (55) 38 (56) 13 (54) 1.1 (0.4–2.7)
 Epicystostomy 9 (10) 7 (10) 2 (8) 1.3 (0.2–6.5)
Co-morbidities
 Congestive cardiac insufficiency 29 (32) 21 (31) 8 (33) 0.9 (0.3–2.4)
 Chronic renal failure 21 (23) 16 (24) 5 (21) 1.2 (0.4–3.6)
 Diabetes mellitus 20 (22) 15 (22) 5 (21) 1.1 (0.3–3.4)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 17 (18) 12 (18) 5 (21) 0.8 (0.3–2.6)
 Malignant tumor 16 (16) 9 (13) 7 (25) 0.4 (0.1–1.1)
 Hemiplegia 14 (16) 11 (16) 3 (13) 1.4 (0.3–5.3)
 Myocardial infarct 13 (14) 9 (13) 4 (17) 0.8 (0.2–2.8)
 Cerebrovascular disease 12 (13) 11 (16) 1 (4) 4.4 (0.5–36.4)
 Othera 34 (37) 27 (40) 7 (29) 1.6 (0.6–4.4)
  1. aHIV, AIDS, hematologic malignancy, dementia, connective tissue disease, liver disease, peripheral vascular disease, ulcer disease, neutropenia, trauma, burn