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Table 3 Linear regression models for factors associated with antifungal use

From: Variability in antifungal utilization among neonatal, pediatric, and adult inpatients in academic medical centers throughout the United States of America

Variable Univariable Multivariable
Coefficient (95% CI) Standard error p-value Coefficient (95% CI) Standard error p-value
Neonates (R2 adjusted =0.11)a: n = 54 institutions; 100,155 admissions
 ELBW admissions 0.016 (− 0.002 to 0.035) 0.009 0.083 −0.011 (− 0.039 to 0.016) 0.014 0.418
 Total invasive fungal infections 0.442 (0.107 to 0.777) 0.167 0.011 0.375 (−0.185 to 0.935) 0.279 0.185
 Total broad-spectrum antibiotics 0.005 (0.001 to 0.009) 0.002 0.012 0.002 (−0.003 to 0.007) 0.002 0.414
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center 0.899 (0.275 to 1.52) 0.311 0.006 0.494 (− 0.305 to 1.29) 0.397 0.220
Region (referent group = Northeast)     
 South 0.864 (−0.016 to 1.75) 0.438 0.054 0.278 (−0.743 to 1.30) 0.507 0.587
 Midwest 0.522 (−0.399 to 1.44) 0.458 0.260 0.391 (−0.54 to 1.32) 0.462 0.402
 West 0.006 (−0.999 to 1.01) 0.500 0.991 −0.256 (1.25 to 0.737) 0.493 0.606
Pediatrics (R2 adjusted =0.55): n = 44 institutions; 159,936 admissions
 Medicine service lines admissions −0.35 (− 0.69 to − 0.01) 0.168 0.044 −0.35 (− 0.658 to-0.045) 0.151 0.026
 Immunosuppressed service lines admissions 2.08 (0.055 to 4.1) 1.00 0.044 1.95 (0.061 to 3.84) 0.932 0.043
 Surgery service lines −0.573 (−1.27 to 0.12) 0.345 0.104 −1.05 (−1.75 to − 0.345) 0.347 0.005
 Total invasive fungal infections 10.1 (−3.54 to 23.7) 6.76 0.142 1.75 (−8.62 to 12.1) 5.11 0.733
Total broad-spectrum antibiotic use 0.327 (0.135 to 0.521) 0.095 0.001 0.41 (0.254 to 0.572) 0.075 < 0.001
Region (referent group = Northeast)     
 South 21.2 (−32 to 75) 26.6 0.430 −11.9 (−53.9 to 30) 20.6 0.568
 Midwest 47.2 (−9.1 to 103) 27.8 0.099 23.7 (−19.3 to 66.7) 21.1 0.279
 West 34.8 (−27 to 97) 30.7 0.264 42.6 (−2.27 to 87.5) 22.1 0.062
Adults (R2 adjusted =0.79): n = 60 institutions; 1,841,667 admissions
 Medicine service lines admissions −1.255 (−1.8 -to −0.70) 0.27 < 0.001 −0.311 (−0.724 to 0.102) 0.21 0.137
 Immunosuppressed service lines admissions 8.03 (8.03 to 9.61) 0.79 < 0.001 5.08 (3.56 to 6.6) 0.76 < 0.001
 Total invasive fungal infections 12.4 (9.65 to 15.2) 1.34 < 0.001 5.17 (1.82 to 8.52) 1.7 0.003
 Total broad-spectrum antibiotics 0.345 (0.167 to 0.523) 0.89 < 0.001 0.137 (0.032 to 0.242) 0.05 0.011
 Extensiveb ASP (referent = not extensive ASP) 21.4 (−0.263 to 43) 10.8 0.053 2.75 (−8.14 to 13.6) 5.4 0.614
Region (referent group = Northeast)     
 South 9.12 (−21.4 to 39.7) 15.3 0.552 −9.65 (− 24 to 5.4) 7.5 0.204
 Midwest 12.2 (−18.3 to 42.8) 15.3 0.425 2.25 (−12.8 to 17.3) 7.5 0.764
 West 33.9 (1.38 to 66.5) 16.2 0.041 4.84 (−12 to 22) 5.4 0.569
  1. ELBW extremely low birthweight < 1000 g, ASP antimicrobial stewardship program
  2. Data normalized as admissions/1000 patient admissions or days of therapy/1000 patient days when appropriate
  3. Table only includes variables with p < 0.25 on univariable analysis
  4. a log days of therapy/1000 patient days was utilized
  5. b Defined for adult group as performing ASP half of the time or more in 5 main service lines (medical intensive care unit (ICU), surgical ICU, surgical units, non-ICU medical floors, and oncology). For pediatric and neonatal groups, any response of an institution performing pediatric or neonatal ASP half the time or more was considered extensive ASP activities
  6. Bolded p-values were statistically significant