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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients admitted for IDU-IE treatment from January 2000 to July 2016

From: Rising rates of injection drug use associated infective endocarditis in Virginia with missed opportunities for addiction treatment referral: a retrospective cohort study

Clinical Characteristics N (%)
Right-sided endocarditis 36 (47)
 Tricuspid valve 35 (46)
 Pulmonic valve 0
 Tricuspid and pulmonic valves 1 (1.3)
Left-sided endocarditis 24 (31.6)
 Mitral valve 10 (13.2)
 Aortic valve 12 (15.8)
 Mitral and aortic valves 2 (2.6)
Unknown 2 (2.6)
Mixed (right and left) endocarditis 10 (13.2)
Cardiac device lead 1 (1.3)
No endocardial disease seen 3 (4)
Heart disease history
 Bicuspid aortic valve 1 (1.3)
 Congenital heart disease 1 (1.3)
 Myxomatous mitral valve 1 (1.3)
 Prosthetic valve 11 (14.5)
 History of endocarditis 24 (31.6)
Clinical Features
 Fever on presentation 36 (47.4)
 Septic shock 15 (19.7)
 Severe congestive heart failure 5 (6.6)
 Indolent symptomsa 56 (73.7)
 Indwelling catheter on admission 18 (23.7)
 Need for CRRT during admission 12 (15.8)
Co-infections
 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 5 (6.6)
 Hepatitis C Virus
  Acute and chronic 33 (42.5)
  Past exposure 17 (22.4)
 Hepatitis B Virus
  Acute 1 (1.3)
  Past exposure 6 (8)
Co-morbid conditions
 Cirrhosis 2 (2.6)
 Diabetes 5 (6.6)
 End-stage renal disease 1 (1.3)
 COPD/Active malignancy 0
Vascular/ Immunologic Phenomenon
 Janeway lesions 7 (9.2)
 Splinter hemorrhages 4 (5.3)
 Roth spots 2 (2.6)
 Osler nodes 6 (8)
 Glomerulonephritis 1 (1.3)
 Septic pulmonary emboli/infarction 42 (55.3)
 Cerebrovascular related events 19 (25)
 Emboli to spleen 3 (3.9)
 Emboli to bone 4 (5.3)
 Septic arthritis 2 (2.6)
Type of injection drug
 Opioids, allb 51 (67)
  Heroin 22 (29)
  Morphine 22 (29)
  Hydromorphone 4 (5.3)
  Oxymorphone 2 (2.6)
  Oxycodone hydrochloride XL 1 (1.3)
  Buprenorphine 2 (2.6)
  Not specified 16 (21)
 Methamphetamines 20 (26.3)
 Bath Salts 4 (5.3)
 Cocaine 12 (16)
 Unknown type 9 (11.2)
Valve surgery performed 31 (41)
Readmissions within 6 months
 One readmission 17 (22.4)
 Two readmissions 7 (9.2)
 Three readmissions 1 (1.3)
  1. CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. aIndolent symptoms defined as: fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, reported fevers
  3. bOpioid injection type and substance type counts do not add up to total opioid users as some individuals reported injecting several types of substances