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Table 1 Characteristics of IDU-IE and non-IDU-IE at UVA from January 2000 to July 2016

From: Rising rates of injection drug use associated infective endocarditis in Virginia with missed opportunities for addiction treatment referral: a retrospective cohort study

Demographic factors IDU-IE, N = 76 Non-IDU-IE N = 143 p-value
N (%) N (%)
Sex 0.7
 Male 86 (60.8) 44 (57.9)  
 Female 55 (39.2) 32 (42.1)  
Race 0.02
 Caucasian 73 (96.1) 120 (84.7)  
 Black 2 (2.6) 21 (14.8)  
 Hispanic 1 (1.3) 1 (0.5)  
Mean Age (range) 35 (19–63) 61 (12–89) < 0.001
Residents of rural counties 24 (31.6) 45 (32.1) 0.9
In-hospital mortality 6 (7.9) 23 (16.6) 0.08
30 day mortalitya 9 (14.5) 31 (24.4) 0.1
90 day mortalitya 12 (21.8) 36 (29.3) 0.3
Insurance < 0.0005
 Medicaid 22 (28.9) 11 (7.7)  
 Medicare 10 (13.2) 87 (60.8)  
 Private 7 (9.2) 28 (19.6)  
 Uninsured 34 (44.7) 10 (7)  
 Tricare (Federally funded) 0 (0) 1 (0.7)  
 State and Local Hospitalization Program 2 (2.6) 2 (1.4)  
 Other 1 (1.3) 4 (1.8)  
Pathogen < 0.0005
 MRSA 29 (38.2) 33 (23.5)  
 MSSA 17 (22.4) 18 (12.5)  
 Other staphylococci 0 7 (4.6)  
Enteroccus faecalis 4 (5.3) 19 (13.1)  
 Other enterococci 0 5 (3.8)  
 Streptococci 7 (9.2) 35 (24.8)  
 Candida species 3 (3.9) 6 (4.1)  
 Polymicrobial infection 8 (10.5) 0  
 Other 4 (5.3) 12 (8.3)  
 No pathogen identified 4 (5.3) 7 (5.2)  
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) p-valueb
Length of stay in days 17 (10–29) 10 (6–18) 0.001
ICU length of stay in days (n = 44)c 6 (2–12) 5 (2–8) 0.8
Hospital cost in dollars 47,899 (24,578–78,144) 26,460 (10,220–60,059) 0.001
  1. MSSA methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ICU intensive care unit
  2. All data were adjusted for sampling weights
  3. aExcluding patients with missing mortality data: 14 patients with IDU-IE and 16 patients with non-I DU-IE for 30 day mortality and 21 patients with IDU-IE and 20 with non-IDU-IE for 90 day mortality
  4. bp-value from Mann-Whitney non-parametric test, other p-values from chi-squared test
  5. cExcluding 80% of patients with no ICU stay (IDU-IE = 58, non-IDU-IE = 117)