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Table 3 WHO prescribing indicators at the selected primary health care centers

From: Antimicrobial use by WHO methodology at primary health care centers: a cross sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan

Sr. No. Indicator RHCse(n = 16) BHUsf(n = 16) All PHCCsg(n = 32) p-value
1 Prescriptions with one or more AMsb, % (range) 79.3 (68.9–86.2) 83.8 (71.4–89.1) 81.5 (68.9–89.1) < 0.001
2 AMs prescribed per prescription, mean (range) 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.5 (1.2–1.7) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) < 0.001
3 AMs prescribed from FL/EMLh, % 100 100 100 -------a
4 Cost (USDc) of AMs prescribed per prescription, mean (range) 1.5 (0.6–4.3) 0.9 (0.6–3.7) 1.3 (0.6–4.3) < 0.001
5 Duration of prescribed AMs (days), mean (range) 5.2 (3.3–6.4) 4.9 (3.7–5.8) 5.1 (3.3–6.4) < 0.001
6 Pneumonia patients who received AMs, % 100 100 100 -------a
7 Patients who received AMs for Pneumonia in accordance with clinical guidelinesi, % 0.0 0.0 0.0 -------a
8 AMs prescribed by INNd, % 100 100 100 -------a
  1. aMann-Whitney U Test was not applied for these indicators as there was no variation in their values, bAntimicrobials; cUS Dollars;dInternational non-proprietary name; eRural health centers; fBasic health Units; gPrimary health care centers; hFormulary list/Essential medicines list; iInfectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults (https://www.thoracic.org/statements/resources/mtpi/idsaats-cap.pdf); dInternational non-proprietary names