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Table 2 Factors associated with detection of ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization among 561 patients without ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization at enrollment

From: Drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization is associated with healthcare utilization and antimicrobial use among inpatients in Pune, India

Risk Factor, n (%) Ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization, n (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p-value
No acquisition, N = 512 Acquisition, N = 49
Age in years
  < 5 163 (32) 21 (43) 4.7 (1.3–29.9) 0.04 4.4 (1.2–28.7) 0.06
 5–11 88 (17) 5 (10) 2.1 (0.4–14.8) 0.39 2.0 (0.4–14.6) 0.41
 12–23 73 (14) 2 (4) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 24–59 154 (30) 15 (31) 3.6 (1–22.9) 0.1 3.8 (1–24.9) 0.08
  ≥ 60 34 (7) 6 (12) 6.4 (1.4–45.5) 0.03 7.0 (1.5–50.1) 0.02
 Male sex 307 (60) 33 (67) 1.4 (0.7–2.8) 0.36 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.23
 Income < 5000 INR / month 183 (36) 23 (47) 1.6 (0.0–8-3) 0.12   
 Farmer or laborer 203 (40) 24 (49) 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 0.22   
 HIVb 56 (22) 6 (27) 1.3 (0.4–3.7) 0.6   
 ICU 102 (20) 17 (35) 2.1 (1.1–4.1) 0.03 1.6 (0.8–3.4) 0.18
Pre-hospital antibiotic use
 Within the past week 99 (19) 13 (27) 1.5 (0.7–3.0) 0.26   
 Within the past month 121 (24) 14 (29) 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 0.48   
Initial inpatient antibiotic Rx
 Any antibiotic 432 (84) 45 (92) 2.1 (0.7–8.2) 0.21   
 Multiple antibiotics 240 (47) 30 (61) 1.8 (0.9–3.5) 0.07   
 3rd-gen cephalosporin 234 (46) 35 (71) 3.0 (1.5–6.1) < .01 2.9 (1.5–5.8) < 0.01
 Fluoroquinolone 19 (4) 1 (2) 0.5 (0.0–3.6) 1   
 Macrolide 96 (19) 13 (27) 1.6 (0.7–3.2) 0.19   
 Aminoglycoside 53 (10) 8 (16) 1.7 (0.6–3.9) 0.23   
  1. OR odds ratio, IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit, INR Indian rupees, Rx prescription
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, ICU admission, and third generation cephalosporin initial antibiotic prescription
  3. bHIV test results were available for 249 patients without ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae acquisition and 22 patients with ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae acquisition