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Table 2 Different menstrual hygiene management practices and WASH access variables of women participating in the study according to infection status

From: Association between unhygienic menstrual management practices and prevalence of lower reproductive tract infections: a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Odisha, India

Exposures With BV (N = 229) Without BV (N = 329) P-value With Candidiasis(N = 190) Without Candidiasis (N = 368) P-value With TV (N = 31) Without TV (N = 527) P-value
MHM practices
 Absorbent material
  Disposable sanitary pads 99 (43.23) 177 (53.80) 0.014 70 (36.84) 206 (55.98) 0.001 12 (38.71) 264 (50.09) 0.218
  Reusable cloths 130 (56.77) 152 (46.20) 120 (63.16) 162 (44.02) 19 (61.29) 263 (49.91)
 Type of reusable material use
  Old cotton fabric 61 (46.92) 84 (55.26) 0.162 62 (51.67) 83 (51.23) 0.943 9 (47.37) 136 (51.71) 0.715
  Old silk/nylon fabric 69 (53.08) 68 (44.74) 58 (48.33) 79 (48.77) 10 (52.63) 127 (48.29)
 Frequency of change of absorbent
  Once a day 69 (30.13) 60 (18.24)   44 (23.16) 85 (23.10) 0.869 7 (22.58) 122 (23.15) 0.653
  Twice a day 110 (48.03) 156 (47.42) 0.001 88 (46.32) 178 (48.37) 17 (54.84) 249 (47.25)
  Three times a day or more 50 (21.83) 113 (34.35) 58 (30.53) 105 (28.53) 7 (22.58) 156 (29.60)
 Place of change of absorbent
  In a toilet facility 130 (56.77) 218 (66.26) 0.023 112 (58.95) 236 (64.13) 0.231 20 (64.52) 328 (62.24) 0.799
  Outside a toilet facility 99 (43.23) 111 (33.74) 78 (41.05) 132 (35.87) 11 (35.48) 199 (37.76)
 What type of washing do you practice during menstruation
  Only vaginal wash 45 (19.65) 58 (17.63) 0.545 43 (22.63) 60 (16.30) 0.068 5 (16.13) 98 (18.60) 0.731
  Bath of full body 184 (80.35) 271 (82.37) 147 (77.37) 308 (83.70) 26 (83.87) 429 (81.40)
 Frequency of washing during menstruation
  Twice or more per day 96 (41.92) 166 (50.46) 0.047 77 (40.53) 185 (50.27) 0.029 15 (48.39) 247 (46.87) 0.869
  Once a day 133 (58.08) 163 (49.54) 113 (59.47) 183 (49.73) 16 (51.61) 280 (53.13)
WASH Access variables
 Do you have a latrine at home?
  Yes 186 (81.2) 265(80.6) 0.84 162 (85.3) 289 (78.5) 0.056 25 (80.7) 426 (80.8%) 0.97
  No 43 (18.8) 64 (19.4) 28 (14.7) 79 (21.5) 6 (19.3) 101 (19.2%)
 Where is the water source located?
  In the house 155 (67.7) 211 (64.1) 0.14 122 (64.2) 244 (66.3) 0.74 20 (64.5) 346 (65.7) 0.64
  In the yard 34 (14.9) 42 (12.8) 24 (12.6) 52 (14.1) 6 (19.4) 70 (13.3)
  At relatives/neighbor house or yard 2 (3.65) 2 (0.87) 6 (3.2) 8 (2.2) 0 (0) 14 (2.7)
  At a public location 38 (16.6) 64 (19.4) 38 (20) 64 (17.4) 5 (16.1) 97 (18.4)
  1. Data are expressed in no (%) of women. P-value determined by Pearson’s chi-square (χ2) test