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Table 3 Sex-stratified prevalence of laboratory-confirmed genital tract infections (GTIs) among sexually experienced, non-pregnant South African youth (aged 16–24 years) enrolled in the AYAZAZI study, overall and by study site (n = 352)

From: A high burden of asymptomatic genital tract infections undermines the syndromic management approach among adolescents and young adults in South Africa: implications for HIV prevention efforts

Laboratory-confirmed infections Durban Soweto Whole cohort
Female n = 96 Male n = 83 Total n = 179 Female n = 102 Male n = 71 Total n = 173 Female n = 198 Male n = 154 Total n = 352
≥ 1 GTI (excluding HIV) 66 (68.8) 10 (12.0) 76 (42.5) 73 (71.6) 6 (8.5) 79 (45.7) 139 (70.2)* 16 (10.4)* 155 (44.0)
Non-ulcerative STIs
C. trachomatis (CT) 14 (14.6) 7 (8.4) 21 (11.7) 22 (21.6) 5 (7.0) 27 (15.6) 36 (18.2)* 12 (7.8)* 48 (13.6)
N. gonorrhoeae (NG) 5 (5.2) 2 (2.4) 7 (3.9) 9 (8.8) 0 (0) 9 (5.2) 14 (7.1)* 2 (1.3)* 16 (4.6)
M. genitalium (MG) 5 (5.2) 3 (3.6) 8 (4.5) 14 (13.7) 2 (2.8) 16 (9.3) 19 (9.6)* 5 (3.3)* 24 (6.8)
T. vaginalis (TV) 3 (3.1) 0 (0) 3 (1.7) 13 (12.8) 1 (1.4) 14 (8.1) 16 (8.1)* 1 (0.7)* 17 (4.8)
  ≥ 1 of CT/NG/MG 22 (22.9) 10 (12.0) 32 (17.9) 38 (37.3) 5 (7.0) 43 (24.9) 60 (30.3)* 15 (9.7)* 75 (21.3)
  ≥ 1 non-ulcerative STI 24 (25.0) 10 (12.0) 34 (19.0) 45 (44.1) 6 (8.5) 51 (29.5) 69 (34.8)* 16 (10.4)* 85 (24.1)
Female-only GTIs
 Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) 52 (54.2)    53 (52.0)    105 (53.0)   
C. albicans (CA) 7 (7.3)    12 (11.8)    19 (9.6)   
Co-infection
 ≥ 2 non-ulcerative STIs 3 (3.1) 2 (2.4) 5 (2.8) 11 (10.8) 2 (2.8) 13 (7.5) 14 (7.0)* 4 (2.6)* 18 (5.0)
 ≥ 1 non-ulcerative STI & ≥1 GTI 16 (16.7)    34 (33.3)    50 (25.3)   
Among those with ≥ 1 non-ulcerative STI
  ≥ 2 non-ulcerative STIs 3 (12.5) 2 (20.0) 5 (14.7) 11 (24.4) 2 (33.3) 13 (25.5) 14 (20.3) 4 (25.0) 18 (21.2)
  ≥ 1 non-ulcerative STI & ≥1 GTI 16 (66.7)    34 (75.6)    50 (72.5)   
Ulcerative STIs (among those with genital ulcers)a n = 1 n = 0 n = 1 n = 1 n = 1 n = 2 n = 2 n = 1 n = 3
 HSV-2 1 (100.0) 0 (0) 1 (100.0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (50.0) 0 (0) 1 (33.3)
T. pallidum 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
H. ducreyi 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 LGV 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
HIVb 9 (9.4) 2 (2.4) 11 (6.2) 1 (1.0) 1 (1.4) 2 (1.2) 10 (5.1) 3 (2.0) 13 (3.7)
  1. Notes: *Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between prevalence among females vs males; aPrevalence of ulcerative STIs restricted to the n = 3 participants who had a genital ulcer identified during physical exams, which was swabbed and tested using multiplex NAAT testing; bAs per the study inclusion criteria, all participants reported being HIV-negative or unknown HIV status at enrollment