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Table 4 Healthcare resource utilization per episode of ACP and IPD

From: Clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in US adults aged 19–64 years with chronic or immunocompromising diseases: an observational database study

  Resource use
Number of office visits (mean [SD]) Number of emergency department visits (mean [SD]) Number of inpatient hospital visits (mean [SD]) Length of inpatient hospital stay (mean [SD])
ACP IPD ACP IPD ACP IPD ACP IPD
Healthy 0.58 (0.76) 0.10 (0.52) 0.22 (0.43) 0.40 (0.51) 0.35 (0.52) 0.96 (0.27) 1.43 (4.09) 7.50 (8.09)
At risk conditions
 Overall 0.43 (0.75)† 0.08 (0.55) 0.23 (0.46)† 0.40 (0.52) 0.54 (0.59)† 0.96 (0.25) 2.41 (5.40)† 7.64 (7.93)
 Asthma 0.49 (0.80)† 0.10 (0.58) 0.25 (0.47)† 0.45 (0.52) 0.45 (0.57)† 0.95 (0.22) 1.98 (4.68)† 7.18 (7.71)
 Chronic heart disease 0.32 (0.69)† 0.06 (0.56) 0.22 (0.46) 0.42 (0.54) 0.68 (0.61)† 0.97 (0.23) 3.04 (6.05)† 8.31 (8.81)
 Chronic lung disease 0.39 (0.76)† 0.07 (0.65) 0.25 (0.48)† 0.43 (0.54) 0.59 (0.62)† 0.95 (0.26) 2.88 (6.04)† 7.06 (6.73)
 Chronic liver disease 0.37 (0.75)† 0.21 (1.18) 0.23 (0.47)* 0.37 (0.49) 0.62 (0.66)† 0.99 (0.19) 2.90 (6.71)† 7.15 (7.61)
 Diabetes mellitus 0.41 (0.71)† 0.06 (0.41) 0.23 (0.45)* 0.39 (0.51) 0.56 (0.60)† 0.95 (0.27) 2.49 (5.62)† 7.88 (8.36)
High-risk conditions
 Overall 0.29 (0.67)† 0.08 (0.40) 0.24 (0.49)† 0.34 (0.53)* 0.73 (0.66)† 0.98 (0.31) 3.46 (6.56)† 7.78 (8.03)
 Chronic renal disease 0.21 (0.61)† 0.07 (0.33) 0.26 (0.51)† 0.30 (0.46)* 0.79 (0.65)† 0.99 (0.30) 3.82 (7.24)† 8.38 (8.49)
 Cancer 0.30 (0.68)† 0.08 (0.35) 0.23 (0.50)† 0.35 (0.56) 0.74 (0.68)† 0.99 (0.34) 3.48 (6.37)† 7.68 (8.11)
 Asplenia 0.19 (0.60)† 0.89 (1.62) 0.24 (0.47) 0.22 (0.44) 0.85 (0.63)† 0.89 (0.93) 4.03 (7.76)† 6.11 (7.44)
 HIV 0.32 (0.64)† 0.08 (0.37) 0.28 (0.49)† 0.36 (0.49) 0.60 (0.61)† 1.00 (0.00)† 3.02 (6.33)† 7.06 (8.62)
 Organ transplant 0.38 (0.77)† 0.05 (0.22) 0.23 (0.46) 0.48 (0.86) 0.63 (0.65)† 0.95 (0.44) 2.90 (6.25)† 7.14 (6.76)
  1. *P < 0.05 (comparisons between at-risk or high-risk adults and healthy adults)
  2. P < 0.0001 (comparisons between at-risk or high-risk adults and healthy adults)
  3. ACP all-cause pneumonia, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, IPD invasive pneumococcal disease, SD standard deviation