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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 210 participants with a single target infection by infection status

From: C-reactive protein and procalcitonin to discriminate between tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected inpatients meeting WHO criteria for seriously ill: a prospective cohort study

Diagnosis n (%) Total N = 210 TB n = 133 (63) CAP n = 61 (29) PJP n = 16 (8) P-value for pairwise comparisona
Median age in yrs. (IQR) 34.8 (28.9–40.7) 34.7 (29.1–40.8) 35.1 (29.4–40.0) 36.9 (28.8–41.2) TB vs. CAP: 0.96, CAP vs. PJP: 0.84
PJP vs. TB: 0.75
Sex: female n(%) 139 (66) 84 (63) 44 (72) 11 (69) TB vs. CAP: 0.22, CAP vs. PJP: 0.71b
PJP vs. TB: 0.79b
Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis 60 (29) 38 (29) 18 (30) 4 (25) TB vs. CAP: 0.89, CAP vs. PJP: 0.49b
PJP vs. TB: 1.00b
Antiretroviral therapy n (%) 76 (36) 43 (32) 29 (48) 4 (25) TB vs. CAP: 0.04, CAP vs. PJP: 0.16b
PJP vs. TB: 0.78b
Median CD4+ count, cells/μL (IQR) 97 (38–210) 77 (35–162) 200 (79–287) 35 (12–81) TB vs. CAP: 0.0001
CAP vs. PJP: 0.0005, PJP vs. TB: 0.03
Median WCC ×109/L (IQR) 8.6 (5.8–12.9) 7.3 (5.2–10.2) 12.3 (8.4–20.0) 8.2 (6.2–10.7) TB vs. CAP: 0.0001, CAP vs. PJP: 0.01
PJP vs. TB: 0.5
Median Hb g/dL (IQR) 9.4 (7.7–10.8) 8.6 (7.4–10.1) 10.4 (8.8–12) 11.25 (9.7–12.2) TB vs. CAP: 0.0001, CAP vs. PJP: 0.24
PJP vs. TB: 0.0001
β-D-glucan > 300 pg/mL 25 (12) 11 (8) 1 (2) 13 (80) TB vs. CAP: 0.11b, CAP vs. PJP: < 0.0001b PJP vs. TB: < 0.0001b
WHO danger signsc:
 Pulse rate > 120 beats/min 166 (79) 106 (80) 51 (84) 9 (56) TB vs. CAP: 0.52, CAP vs. PJP: 0.02
PJP vs. TB: 0.04
 Respiratory rate > 30/min 137 (65) 83 (62) 38 (62) 16 (100) TB vs. CAP: 0.99, CAP vs. PJP: 0.002b
PJP vs. TB: 0.001b
 Fever> 39 °C 31 (15) 20 (15) 10 (16) 1 (6) TB vs. CAP: 0.81, CAP vs. PJP: 0.44b
PJP vs. TB: 0.47b
 Unable to walk unaided 119 (57) 88 (67) 23 (38) 8 (50) TB vs. CAP:< 0.0001, CAP vs. PJP: 0.40
PJP vs. TB: 0.19
TB symptomsd:
 Night sweats 137 (66) 89 (67) 38 (63) 10 (67) TB vs. CAP: 0.58, CAP vs. PJP:1.00b
PJP vs. TB: 0.78b
 Weight loss 196 (94) 130 (98) 53 (88) 13 (81) TB vs. CAP: 0.005b, CAP vs. PJP: 0.43b
PJP vs. TB: 0.009b
 Fever 170 (82) 106 (80) 52 (87) 12 (75) TB vs. CAP: 0.29, CAP vs. PJP: 0.27b
PJP vs. TB: 0.74b
  1. Abbreviations: TB tuberculosis, CAP bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, PJP Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Hb haemoglobin, WCC white cell count
  2. aHypothesis tests- Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for continuous data; Chi-square test for categorical data. bFisher’s exact test where 1 or more cells < 5
  3. cDanger signs based on WHO algorithm for diagnosis of TB in seriously ill patients; d Cough of any duration was a study inclusion criterion