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Table 1 The roles and responsibilities of whole-of-society proposed by WHO in 2009 and the addition in 2013 and 2017

From: A review of documents prepared by international organizations about influenza pandemics, including the 2009 pandemic: a bibliometric analysis

  Sectors Roles and responsibility in 2009a Added roles and responsibility in 2013b and 2017c
Government Central government 1. Leader;
2. Enact or modify legislation and policies;
3. Prioritize and guide the allocation and targeting of resources;
4. Provide planning information and framework;
5. Define, oversee, and coordinate preparedness actions.
1. Conduct training to ensure effective dissemination at all levels;
2. Design and implement exercises to test plans and encourage community mobilization
Ministries of Transportation 1. Minimize infection risks and staff absences in vital transportation plots 1. Mechanisms for communication and education of public transportation users
Ministries of Finance 1. Maintain essential financial services;
2. Conduct testing of systemic resilience to pandemic risk
1. National-level financial planning for pandemic risk management;
2. The mechanisms to draw down emergency funding for interventions should be tested prior to a pandemic.
Ministries of Justice 1. Consider what legal processes could be suspended and make alternative plans to operate courts during pandemic.;
2. Minimize the spread of infection in prisons and other institutions under their authority.
1. Maintain all essential legal and administrative operations during a pandemic;
2. Plans for infection control and risk reduction in facilities should be tested in conjunction with the Ministry of Health plans.
Ministries of Defense 1. Release and mobilize military assets 1. Based on Ministry of Health planning assumptions and risk assessment
Ministries of Education   1. Surveillance of absenteeism in schools;
2. Linking of school surveillance systems with the Ministry of Health.
Ministries of Energy   1. Well-developed and well-exercised preparedness plans;
2. Alternative plans for energy supplies.
Ministries of Communication   1. Ensure communication channels open at the time of crises;
2. Develop a national communication plan
Ministries of Agriculture and Animal Health   1. Surveillance and monitoring of non-seasonal influenza viruses;
2. Decrease the exposure of humans to influenza viruses at the human–animal ecosystem interface.
Ministries of Health 1. Provide reliable information on the risk, severity, and progression of a pandemic and the effectiveness of interventions used;
2. Provide health care;
3. Reduce the spread of influenza;
4. Protect and support health-care workers.
 
Business Sectors   1. Medical supplies and services;
2. Monitor absenteeism;
3. Reduce population density in shopping areas;
4. Protect employees;
5. Provide accurate and timely communication messages;
6. Provide personal protective equipment and training
Civil society and community-based organizations 1. Translate scientific and government messages and recommendations;
2. Build public confidence, disseminate information, and identify people at risk;
3. Provide community-based services
1. Maintain or expand their essential services
Individuals and families 1. For families, have access to reliable information from sources;
2. For individuals, assist the others;
3. Adoption of individual and household measures, such as covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and the voluntary isolation of persons with respiratory illness
 
  1. a World Health Organization. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response, 2009
  2. b World Health Organization. Pandemic Influenza Risk Management, 2013
  3. c World Health Organization. Pandemic Influenza Risk Management, 2017