|Sectors||Roles and responsibility in 2009a||Added roles and responsibility in 2013b and 2017c|
2. Enact or modify legislation and policies;
3. Prioritize and guide the allocation and targeting of resources;
4. Provide planning information and framework;
5. Define, oversee, and coordinate preparedness actions.
1. Conduct training to ensure effective dissemination at all levels;|
2. Design and implement exercises to test plans and encourage community mobilization
|Ministries of Transportation||1. Minimize infection risks and staff absences in vital transportation plots||1. Mechanisms for communication and education of public transportation users|
|Ministries of Finance||
1. Maintain essential financial services;|
2. Conduct testing of systemic resilience to pandemic risk
1. National-level financial planning for pandemic risk management;|
2. The mechanisms to draw down emergency funding for interventions should be tested prior to a pandemic.
|Ministries of Justice||
1. Consider what legal processes could be suspended and make alternative plans to operate courts during pandemic.;|
2. Minimize the spread of infection in prisons and other institutions under their authority.
1. Maintain all essential legal and administrative operations during a pandemic;|
2. Plans for infection control and risk reduction in facilities should be tested in conjunction with the Ministry of Health plans.
|Ministries of Defense||1. Release and mobilize military assets||1. Based on Ministry of Health planning assumptions and risk assessment|
|Ministries of Education||
1. Surveillance of absenteeism in schools;|
2. Linking of school surveillance systems with the Ministry of Health.
|Ministries of Energy||
1. Well-developed and well-exercised preparedness plans;|
2. Alternative plans for energy supplies.
|Ministries of Communication||
1. Ensure communication channels open at the time of crises;|
2. Develop a national communication plan
|Ministries of Agriculture and Animal Health||
1. Surveillance and monitoring of non-seasonal influenza viruses;|
2. Decrease the exposure of humans to influenza viruses at the human–animal ecosystem interface.
|Ministries of Health||
1. Provide reliable information on the risk, severity, and progression of a pandemic and the effectiveness of interventions used;|
2. Provide health care;
3. Reduce the spread of influenza;
4. Protect and support health-care workers.
1. Medical supplies and services;|
2. Monitor absenteeism;
3. Reduce population density in shopping areas;
4. Protect employees;
5. Provide accurate and timely communication messages;
6. Provide personal protective equipment and training
|Civil society and community-based organizations||
1. Translate scientific and government messages and recommendations;|
2. Build public confidence, disseminate information, and identify people at risk;
3. Provide community-based services
|1. Maintain or expand their essential services|
|Individuals and families||
1. For families, have access to reliable information from sources;|
2. For individuals, assist the others;
3. Adoption of individual and household measures, such as covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and the voluntary isolation of persons with respiratory illness