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Table 3 Univariable regression analysis of potential risk factors for fat abnormalities in the Maggsen cohort studya, Dakar, Senegal

From: Low prevalence of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected Senegalese children on long-term antiretroviral treatment: the ANRS 12279 MAGGSEN Pediatric Cohort Study

Characteristics Lipoatrophy Fat abnormality
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Boys 4.3 1.6–11.6 0.004 2.7 1.2–6.3 0.02
Age ≥ 10 years 1.3 0.6–2.9 0.54 1.4 0.6–3.0 0.42
Puberty onset: Yes 1.2 0.5–2.7 0.64 1.3 0.6–2.7 0.52
Moderate wastingb: Yes 1.7 0.7–3.9 0.20 1.4 0.6–3.1 0.43
WHO classification Stagec 3/4 vs 1/2 1.7 0.5–5.0 0.37 2.0 0.7–5.8 0.23
Viral load > 40 copies/mL: Yes 1.1 0.5–2.6 0.76 0.9 0.4–2.0 0.82
CD4 < 500 cells/mm3: Yes 0.5 0.1–1.7 0.26 0.6 0.2–1.8 0.34
Stavudine ever used: Yes 2.1 0.9–5.2 0.09 2.1 0.9–5.0 0.08
Stavudine exposure 1 year vs No 1.5 0.5–4.8 0.48 1.7 0.6–4.9 0.32
≥1 year vs No 3.6 1.0–12.6 0.04 3.1 0.9–10.8 0.07
Zidovudine recent: Yes 1.0 0.4–2.4 0.94 1.0 0.4–2.3 0.93
Zidovudine exposure < 3 years vs No 0.5 0.2–1.8 0.30 0.6 0.2–1.7 0.30
≥3 years vs No 1.3 0.5–3.3 0.61 1.2 0.5–3.0 0.63
Lopinavir/r recent: Yes 1.3 0.6–3.1 0.51 1.1 0.5–2.5 0.86
Lopinavir/r exposure < 3 years vs No 0.3 0.0–2.5 0.28 0.3 0.0–2.0 0.20
≥3 years vs No 2.2 0.9–5.4 0.09 1.8 0.7–4.3 0.21
  1. aAbbreviations: CI confidence interval, Lopinavir/r lopinavir/ritonavir, OR odds ratio
  2. bModerate wasting (moderate acute malnutrition) is defined for both weight-for-height z scores (WHZ) in children < 5 years or body mass index-for-age z score (BMIZ) in children ≥5 years as being ≥ − 3 and < − 2 [20, 21]
  3. cWHO symptoms classification: highest stage reached by the child before ART initiation