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Table 3 Determinants of use Xpert/MTB/RIF® in Kenya

From: Variability in distribution and use of tuberculosis diagnostic tests in Kenya: a cross-sectional survey

Characteristic 0-14yrs
Xpert® done
n (column %)
N=309
≥15yrs
Xpert® done
n (column %)
N=9,224
Model 1
0-14yrs
adjusted OR
(95% CI)
N=6,450
Model 2
≥15yrs
adjusted OR
(95% CI)
N=75,845
Model 3
Overall
adjusted OR
(95% CI)
N=82,295
Age   1 (≥15yrs base)
0.41 (0.36 to 0.47)
Gender
 Female 140 (45.3) 3241 (35.1) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Male 169 (54.7) 5983 (64.9) 1.13 (0.88 to 1.45) 1.09 (1.03 to 1.14) 1.09 (1.03 to 1.14)
HIV Status
 Negative 164 (53.1) 4751 (51.5) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Positive 143 (46.3) 4372 (47.4) 2.00 (1.52 to 2.61) 1.83 (1.74 to 1.93) 1.82 (1.73 to 1.92)
 Unknown 2 (0.7) 101 (1.1) 0.19 (0.05 to 0.78) 0.81 (0.65 to 1.01) 0.76 (0.61 to 0.94)
Nutrition Status
 Normal 40 (12.9) 3379 (36.6) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Underweight 238 (77.0) 5132 (55.6) 1.97 (1.36 to 2.83) 1.13 (1.07 to 1.19) 1.15 (1.09 to 1.21)
 Overweight/obese 3 (1.0) 360 (3.9) 0.94 (0.26 to 3.36) 0.88 (0.77 to 0.99) 0.88 (0.78 to 1.00)
 Unknown 28 (9.1) 353 (3.8) 1.34 (0.79 to 2.27) 0.64 (0.56 to 0.73) 0.67 (0.59 to 0.76)
Type of patient
 New patient/transfer in 277 (89.6) 6497 (70.4) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Relapse/Default/Failure 32 (10.4) 2727 (29.6) 4.19 (2.60 to 6.75) 7.97 (7.47 to 8.50) 7.81 (7.33 to 8.33)
Sector
 Public 242 (78.3) 7692 (83.4) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Private 62 (20.1) 1373 (14.9) 0.93 (0.63 to 1.37) 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97) 0.85 (0.75 to 0.97)
 FBOsa 5 (1.6) 159 (1.7) 0.62 (0.19 to 2.11) 0.99 (0.67 to 1.46) 0.99 (0.68 to 1.45)
Health Facility Level
 Lower levelb 174 (56.3) 5737 (62.2) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Higher levelc 120 (38.8) 3165 (34.3) 1.18 (0.80 to 1.74) 0.91 (0.79 to 1.05) 0.91 (0.79 to 1.06)
 Unknown 15 (4.9) 322 (3.5) 1.99 (1.01 to 3.92) 1.01 (0.82 to 1.26) 1.04 (0.84 to 1.28)
Patient from an Xpert® site
 Not from Xpert® site 228 (73.8) 6778 (73.5) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 From Xpert® site 81 (26.2) 2446 (26.5) 1.17 (0.74 to 1.85) 2.30 (1.86 to 2.82) 2.23 (1.82 to 2.74)
County Poverty Levels (from poorest to richest)
 Quartile 1 53 (17.2) 1839 (19.9) 1 (base) 1 (base) 1 (base)
 Quartile 2 78 (25.2) 2875 (31.2) 0.85 (0.39 to 1.86) 1.22 (0.60 to 2.48) 1.19 (0.60 to 2.37)
 Quartile 3 103 (33.3) 2802 (30.4) 1.04 (0.48 to 2.26) 1.34 (0.66 to 2.74) 1.32 (0.66 to 2.62)
 Quartile 4 75 (24.3) 1708 (18.5) 0.54 (0.25 to 1.18) 0.64 (0.32 to 1.27) 0.62 (0.32 to 1.21)
Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)
 County   0.04 (0.02 to 0.11) 0.07 (0.04 to 0.11) 0.07 (0.04 to 0.11)
 Health facility 0.26 (0.18 to 0.37) 0.24 (0.21 to 0.27) 0.24 (0.21 to 0.27)
  1. aFBOs Faith Based Organisations
  2. bPrimary referral facilities
  3. cSecondary and tertiary referral facilities