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Table 3 Unadjusted Odds Ratio for the relationship between ARI symptoms, household environmental characteristics, and maternal and child characteristics, Nigeria, 2003-2013

From: Household environment and symptoms of childhood acute respiratory tract infections in Nigeria, 2003–2013: a decade of progress and stagnation

Variables 2003 (n = 5445) 2008 (n = 24,975) 2013 (n = 28,950)
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Household environment
 Unclean cooking fuel 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 2.50 (1.16–5.42)*
 Cooking inside the house NA  
 Smoking by household members 1.08 (0.88–1.33) 2.24 (0.94–5.32) 1.20 (0.89–1.61)
 Improved source of drinking water 0.66 (0.49–0.89)* 0.86 (0.73–1.03) 0.79 (0.67–0.96)*
 Improved toilet 0.89 (0.70–1.14) 0.83 (0.71–0.96)* 0.79 (0.67–0.95)*
 Quality of housing material
  Poor NA 1.34 (1.11–1.61)* 1.59 (1.32–1.93)*
  Average NA 1.28 (1.03–1.59)* 1.48 (1.19–1.85)*
  Good NA 1.00 1.00
  Over-crowded sleeping room 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.87 (0.77–1.00) 0.93 (0.79–1.10)
 Wealth quintile
  Poor 1.45 (1.13–1.85)* 1.40 (1.15–1.70)* 1.78 (1.43–2.22)*
  Middle 1.42 (1.09–1.84)* 1.30 (1.06–1.61)* 1.88 (1.49–2.36)*
  Rich 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Residence
  Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Urban 0.82 (0.63–1.06) 0.93 (0.75–1.16) 0.74 (0.58–0.93)*
 Region
  North West 1.29 (0.83–2.02) 1.67 (1.13–2.48)* 4.55 (2.69–7.67)*
  North East 2.38 (1.56–3.62)* 5.28 (3.60–7.75)* 13.00 (8.23–20.53)*
  North Central 0.98 (0.59–1.65) 1.87 (1.24–2.81)* 1.89 (1.13–3.15)*
  South East 1.34 (0.78–2.31) 3.20 (2.13–4.83)* 7.00 (4.29–11.42)*
  South South 1.71 (1.05–2.79)* 3.26 (2.18–4.88)* 4.55 (2.79–7.42)*
  South West 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Season of interview
  Dry season 1.68 (1.32–2.14)* 1.15 (0.96–1.38) 1.58 (1.21–2.06)*
  Rainy season 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal characteristics
 Age of mother
  <  20 1.51 (0.94–2.43) 1.41 (0.99–2.01) 1.24 (0.89–1.70)
  20–29 1.09 (0.76–1.56) 1.23 (0.96–1.57) 1.03 (0.82–1.29)
  30–39 1.06 (0.74–1.52) 1.01 (0.79–1.30) 0.86 (0.69–1.06)
  > = 40 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Education
  None 1.43 (1.11–1.85)* 1.21 (0.99–1.47) 1.01 (0.83–1.22)
  Primary 1.34 (1.03–1.780* 1.22 (1.01–1.47)* 1.24 (1.02–1.50)*
  Secondary/higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Occupation
  Not working 0.99 (0.57–1.69) 1.24 (0.89–1.74) 1.31 (0.98–1.74)
  Professional/services 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Sales 1.05 (0.63–1.77) 1.17 (0.84–1.62) 0.85 (0.65–1.11)
  Agriculture/manual 1.01 (0.59–1.69) 1.73 (1.22–2.43)* 1.50 (1.14–1.99)*
Child characteristics
 Age (months)
  0–11 1.99 (1.58–2.51)* 1.43 (1.22–1.67)* 1.83 (1.57–2.14)*
  12–23 1.80 (1.40–2.32)* 1.92 (1.67–2.20)* 2.36 (2.02–2.76)*
  24–35 1.46 (1.12–1.89)* 1.35 (1.14–1.60)* 1.78 (1.49–2.12)*
  > = 36 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Sex
  Male 1.03 (0.86–1.22) 0.99 (0.88–1.11) 1.04 (0.93–1.17)
  Female 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Birth order
  1 1.00 1.00 1.00
  2–3 0.96 (0.76–1.22) 0.86 (0.74–1.00) 0.99 (0.83–1.17)
  4–5 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 1.01 (0.84–1.22)
  6+ 1.03 (0.79–1.33) 1.02 (0.85–1.23) 1.29 (1.06–1.57)*
 Chronic malnutrition
  Yes 0.93 (0.78–1.12) 1.19 (1.06–1.36)* 1.03 (0.88–1.20)
  No 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. *p <0.05 (statistically significant)