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Table 1 Percentage of under-five children according to ARI symptoms status, household environmental and other background characteristics, Nigeria, 2003–2013

From: Household environment and symptoms of childhood acute respiratory tract infections in Nigeria, 2003–2013: a decade of progress and stagnation

Variables 2003 (n = 5445) 2008 (n = 24,975) 2013 (n = 28,950)
ARI symptoms All children Children with ARI symptoms All children Children with ARI symptoms All children Children with ARI symptoms
ARI symptoms 550 (10.3)   1159 (4.6)   1095 (3.8)  
Household environment
 Unclean cooking fuel 97.5 99.0 98.1 98.8 98.4 99.1
 Cooking inside the house NA      
 Smoking by household members 31.6 32.6 0.2 0.4 6.9 10.1
 Improved source of drinking water 18.2 11.9 51.0 46.8 56.6 52.0
 Improved toilet 75.9 76.5 51.7 44.3 51.2 44.8
Quality of housing material
 Poor NA   42.9 48.9 41.2 50.0
 Average NA   14.3 15.1 16.4 17.1
 Good NA   42.8 36.0 42.4 32.9
 Over-crowded sleeping room 58.1 55.6 58.5 54.6 56.2 53.3
Wealth quintile
 Poor 42.6 48.4 44.8 51.7 45.3 51.3
 Middle 20.0 23.5 19.2 19.6 19.1 24.2
 Rich 37.3 28.1 36.0 28.7 35.6 24.5
Residence
 Rural 69.7 77.1 69.2 72.0 64.1 70.0
 Urban 30.3 22.9 30.8 28.0 35.9 30.0
Region
 North West 34.0 29.1 30.4 19.4 36.2 16.7
 North East 22.9 36.1 16.0 34.3 17.4 42.2
 North Central 14.6 9.6 13.8 10.5 13.9 14.5
 South East 6.5 4.0 9.7 11.0 8.9 12.7
 South South 12.8 15.0 13.3 18.7 9.5 9.9
 South West 9.2 6.0 16.9 6.2 14.1 4.0
Season of interview
 Dry 29.2 39.2 0.8 0.2 62.8 74.8
 Rainy 70.8 60.8 99.8 99.8 37.2 25.2