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Table 2 Longitudinal change (week 0 and 8) in inflammatory cytokines in treatment groups compared to placebo

From: Immune responses in the treatment of drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis with phenylbutyrate and vitamin D3 as host directed therapy

  Crude Adjusteda
β(95% CI) p-value β(95% CI) p-value
TNF-α
 PBA (n = 32) − 0.17 (− 0.42, 0.09) 0.20 − 0.34 (− 0.68, − 0.003) 0.04
 vitD3 (n = 31) − 0.16 (− 0.41, 0.10) 0.23 − 0.22 (− 0.57, 0.13) 0.22
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 32) −0.13 (− 0.38, 0.13) 0.32 − 0.03 (− 0.37, 0.31) 0.85
IL-8
 PBA (n = 32) −0.29 (− 0.68, 0.09) 0.13 − 0.33 (− 0.71, 0.05) 0.08
 vitD3 (n = 31) − 0.11 (− 0.50, 0.28) 0.57 −0.09 (− 0.49, 0.30) 0.63
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 32) −0.17 (− 0.55, 0.22) 0.39 −0.18 (− 0.55, 0.20) 0.36
GM-CSF
 PBA (n = 32) −0.13 (− 0.38, 0.11) 0.28 − 0.27 (− 0.56, 0.01) 0.06
 vitD3 (n = 31) − 0.19 (− 0.44, 0.05) 0.12 −0.19 (− 0.49, 0.10) 0.20
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 32) 0.08 (−0.17, 0.32) 0.54 0.06 (−0.23, 0.35) 0.69
IL-4
 PBA (n = 32) −0.10 (− 0.23, 0.03) 0.14 − 0.14 (− 0.31, 0.01) 0.08
 vitD3 (n = 31) − 0.08 (− 0.21, 0.06) 0.26 −0.11 (− 0.27, 0.06) 0.20
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 32) −0.06 (− 0.20, 0.07) 0.35 −0.05 (− 0.22, 0.11) 0.52
CCL11 (eotaxin)
 PBA (n = 20) −0.03 (− 0.17, 0.10) 0.63 − 0.19 (− 0.36, − 0.03) 0.02
 vitD3 (n = 17) −0.11 (− 0.26, 0.03) 0.11 −0.17 (− 0.34, − 0.001) 0.04
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 19) −0.04 (− 0.18, 0.10) 0.59 −0.07 (− 0.23, 0.10) 0.44
CCL5 (RANTES)
 PBA (n = 20) −0.07 (− 0.13, − 0.001) 0.04 −0.08 (− 0.16, 0.002) 0.05
 vitD3 (n = 17) −0.05 (− 0.12, 0.01) 0.11 −0.06 (− 0.15, 0.02) 0.14
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 19) −0.04 (− 0.10, 0.03) 0.27 −0.06 (− 0.14, 0.03) 0.18
CXCL10 (IP-10)
 PBA (n = 20) −0.11 (− 0.41, 0.18) 0.45 − 0.13 (− 0.51, 0.24) 0.47
 vitD3 (n = 17) − 0.25 (− 0.57, 0.06) 0.10 −0.38 (− 0.77, 0.003) 0.05
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 19) −0.15 (− 0.46, 0.15) 0.32 −0.16 (− 0.54, 0.21) 0.39
PDGF-BB
 PBA (n = 20) −0.03 (− 0.18, 0.12) 0.71 0.01 (− 0.15, 0.16) 0.92
 vitD3 (n = 17) −0.16 (− 0.32, − 0.003) 0.04 −0.16 (− 0.31, 0.002) 0.05
 PBA + vitD3 (n = 19) −0.12 (− 0.28, 0.03) 0.10 −0.12 (− 0.27, 0.03) 0.12
  1. Data is presented as beta coefficient with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, PBA phenylbutyrate, vitD3 vitamin D3, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL interleukin, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, PDGF-BB platelet-derived growth factor-BB
  3. aAdjusted for age, sex, duration of treatment, history of contact with active TB cases.
  4. Statistical analysis was performed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. P-value of < 0.05 is significant