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Table 3 Associations between network parameters and infections, derived from logistic regression analysis, adjusted for characteristics of the participant

From: Social networks in relation to self-reported symptomatic infections in individuals aged 40–75 - the Maastricht study –

  Upper respiratory tract infection Lower respiratory tract infection Gastrointestinal infection Urinary tract infection
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Network size (for every additional alter) (mean, SD) 1.02* 1.00–1.04 1.01 0.99–1.04 1.03* 1.01–1.05 0.99 0.96–1.03
Contact frequency
 Total contacts per half year (for every 10 additional contacts) (mean, SD) 1.00 0.99–1.01 1.00 0.99–1.00 1.00 0.99–1.01 1.01 1.00–1.02
 Percentage of alters with daily-weekly ego/alter contact (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 0.96* 0.93–0.99 0.97 0.92–1.01 0.95* 0.90–0.99 1.05 0.99–1.12
 Percentage of alters with monthly ego/alter contact (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.00 0.96–1.04 0.99 0.93–1.05 1.05 0.99–1.11 1.03 0.95–1.12
 Percentage of alters with quarterly ego/alter contact (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.02 0.96–1.07 1.08# 1.00–1.16 1.10** 1.02–1.18 0.93 0.82–1.04
 Percentage of alters with half-yearly ego/alter contact (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.06** 1.01–1.10 1.02 0.96–1.08 0.99 0.93–1.05 0.92 0.84–1.01
Proximity
 Percentage of alters who are household members (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 0.93* 0.88–0.99 0.98 0.90–1.07 0.87** 0.80–0.95 1.01 0.91–1.13
 Percentage of alters living within walking distance (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 0.99 0.96–1.03 1.01 0.96–1.07 0.99 0.94–1.04 0.99 0.92–1.06
 Percentage of alters living less than 1/2 h away by car (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.00 0.97–1.04 0.97 0.92–1.02 1.02 0.97–1.07 1.01 0.94–1.08
 Percentage of alters living more than 1/2 h away by car (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.05* 1.00–1.10 1.07* 1.00–1.14 1.07* 1.01–1.14 0.96 0.87–1.06
 Percentage of alters living further away (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.03 0.94–1.13 0.92 0.79–1.07 1.02 0.90–1.15 1.09 0.93–1.28
Mixing
 Percentage of same-sex alters (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.00 0.96–1.05 1.01 0.94–1.08 1.06# 0.99–1.14 0.93 0.85–1.02
 Percentage of same-age alters (for every additional 10%) (±5 years) (mean, SD) 0.95* 0.91–0.99 0.92** 0.86–0.97 0.96 0.91–1.01 0.99 0.92–1.07
 Percentage of younger alters (for every additional 10%) (> 15 years younger) (mean, SD) 1.00 0.91–1.09 0.97 0.85–1.10 0.97 0.86–1.10 1.03 0.86–1.22
 Percentage of younger alters (for every additional 10%) (5-15 years younger) (mean, SD) 1.03 0.97–1.09 1.09* 1.01–1.18 1.09* 1.01–1.17 0.94 0.84–1.06
 Percentage of older alters (for every additional 10%) (> 15 years older) (mean, SD) 1.04# 1.00–1.09 1.03 0.97–1.10 0.99 0.93–1.05 1.03 0.95–1.12
 Percentage of older alters (for every additional 10%) (5–15 years older) (mean, SD) 1.02 0.97–1.08 1.07# 0.99–1.15 1.05 0.97–1.12 1.02 0.92–1.14
Heterogeneity
 Sex heterogeneity (IQV, range 0–1) (mean, SD) 1.38 0.91–2.10 1.20 0.65–2.22 0.92 0.53–1.58 1.20 0.54–2.68
 Age heterogeneity (per SD increase) (SD) (mean, SD) 1.01 1.00–1.03 1.01 0.99–1.04 1.00 0.98–1.02 1.00 0.96–1.03
Type of relationship
 Participants who have a partner (%) 0.99 0.80–1.23 0.75# 0.56–1.00 0.74* 0.56–0.97 1.35 0.87–2.08
 Percentage of alters who are family members (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 0.97# 0.94–1.00 0.92** 0.88–0.97 0.91*** 0.87–0.96 1.04 0.97–1.12
 Percentage of alters who are friends (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.01 0.97–1.05 1.08* 1.02–1.14 1.12*** 1.06–1.18 0.99 0.92–1.08
 Percentage of alters who are acquaintances (colleague, neighbor, club mate, other) (for every additional 10%) (mean, SD) 1.04# 1.00–1.10 1.04 0.97–1.12 1.00 0.93–1.07 0.93 0.83–1.03
Proxy for superficial contacts
 Number of club memberships (mean, SD) 1.02 0.93–1.11 1.03 0.91–1.16 1.04 0.93–1.17 0.99 0.84–1.16
 Number of clubs with daily/weekly participation (mean, SD) 0.99 0.89–1.10 1.00 0.86–1.16 1.02 0.89–1.18 0.97 0.79–1.20
 Number of clubs with monthly participation (mean, SD) 1.10 0.92–1.32 1.18 0.92–1.51 1.06 0.83–1.35 1.06 0.74–1.52
 Number of clubs with less frequent participation (mean, SD) 1.01 0.80–1.28 0.97 0.68–1.38 1.15 0.85–1.55 0.95 0.58–1.55
Network density
 Density between friends
 - low density (1–3) (%) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 - medium density (4) (%) 1.13 0.92–1.38 0.87 0.65–1.16 0.94 0.72–1.24 0.90 0.60–1.35
 - high density (5) (%) 1.08 0.86–1.35 0.92 0.67–1.25 0.89 0.66–1.20 1.09 0.71–1.67
 Density between friends and family
 - low density (1–3) (%) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 - medium density (4) (%) 1.16 0.92–1.47 0.93 0.67–1.29 1.01 0.74–1.39 1.13 0.70–1.81
 - high density (5) (%) 1.27* 1.00–1.61 0.87 0.65–1.26 1.04 0.75–1.43 1.24 0.77–2.00
  1. All analyses were adjusted for: sex, age, smoking status, diabetes status, BMI, alcohol consumption, educational level, employment status, and season
  2. OR Odds Ratio, 95% CI; 95% Confidence Interval, # p < 0.1 *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001