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Table 1 Index Case Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

From: Yield of household contact tracing for tuberculosis in rural South Africa

Variable Overall (N = 130) New TB in Householda (N = 9) No New TB in Householdb (N = 121) P-value*
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Female Sex 57 (44%) 3 (33%) 54 (45%) 0.731
Age (Median, IQR***) 40 (31–49) 36 (31–48) 39 (31–49) 0.831
Female-Headed Household 67 (52%) 7 (78%) 60 (50%) 0.166
Head of HH Income (Median, IQR) 1270 (13–2350) 2500 (1270–6300) 1270 (0–2000) 0.047
Education
 8th grade or less 40 (31%) 4 (44%) 36 (30%) 0.278
 At least some high school 73 (56%) 3 (33%) 70 (58%)
 More than high school 17 (13%) 2 (22%) 15 (12%)
Unemployed 73 (56%) 6 (67%) 67 (55%) 0.731
Number of HH members, by Self-Report (Median, IQR) 5 (3–6) 6 (5–6) 4 (3–6) 0.130
Number of HH Contacts Participating in Study (Median, IQR) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–6) 2 (1–3) 0.005
Years lived in HH (Median, IQR) 30 (20–40) 37 (28–43) 30 (19–39) 0.235
Previous TB 15 (12%) 1 (11%) 14 (12%) 1.0
TB Symptoms
 Cough 58 (45%) 4 (44%) 54 (45%) 1.0
 Fever 45 (35%) 1 (11%) 44 (36%) 0.162
 Fatigue 64 (49%) 4 (44%) 60 (50%) 1.0
 Loss of appetite 25 (19%) 1 (11%) 24 (20%) 1.0
 Weight loss 84 (65%) 5 (56%) 79 (65%) 0.720
 Night sweats 55 (42%) 5 (56%) 50 (41%) 0.493
 At least one TB symptom 112 (86%) 7 (78%) 105 (87%) 0.611
Symptom duration
 No symptoms 18 (14%) 2 (22%) 16 (13%) 0.357
  < 1 month 57 (44%) 3 (33%) 54 (45%)
 1–6 months 32 (25%) 1 (11%) 31 (26%)
  > 6 months 23 (18%) 3 (33%) 20 (17%)
Smear Positive (overall n = 60)** 44 (73%) 2 (29%) 42 (79%) 0.012
Xpert MTB/RIF Positive (overall n = 64)c 55 (86%) 2 (67%) 53 (87%) 0.370
  1. *Categorical variables were tested using Fisher’s Exact Test, and continuous variables were tested with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test
  2. **70 individuals were missing smear results in the clinic TB register and/or index case TB card (68 index cases living in households with no new TB cases, and 2 individuals living in households with ≥1 new TB case)
  3. ***IQR: Interquartile range
  4. aIndex cases from households with at least one member diagnosed with laboratory confirmed TB as a part of this study
  5. bIndex cases from households with no members diagnosed with laboratory confirmed TB as a part of this study
  6. c66 individuals were missing Xpert results in the clinic TB register and/or index case TB card (60 index cases living in household with no new TB cases, and 6 individuals living in households with ≥1 new TB case)