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Table 2 The diagnostic framework for IPA in patients with URD

From: Sputum signatures for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with underlying respiratory diseases (SPARED): study protocol for a prospective diagnostic trial

Host factors Recent history of neutropenia (< 0.5 × 109 neutrophils/L for > 10 days) temporally related to the onset of infection
Prolonged use of corticosteroids at a mean minimum dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day of prednisone equivalent for > 3 weeks
Treatment with immunosuppressants during the past 90 days
Inherited severe immunodeficiency
Underlying respiratory diseases including chronic pulmonary diseases (COPD, asthma, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung diseases, and cystic fibrosis) and acute pulmonary diseases (bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, and acute bronchitis)
Clinical criteria The presence of 1 of the following 3 signs on chest computed tomography:
Dense, well circumscribed lesion(s) with or without a halo sign
Air-crescent sign
Cavity on chest computed tomography
Mycological criteria Cytologic or microscopic evidence of Aspergillus elements or recovery of Aspergillus in sputum or BALF
Positive GM test in serum or BALF