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Table 3 Factors associated with the presence of at least one drug-induced immune-associated escape mutation by fitting a uni-multivariable logistic regression model

From: Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
crude OR [95% CI] p-value adjusted OR [95% CI] p-value
Gender (Female vs. Malea) 0.76 (0.51–1.14) 0.188 0.71 (0.46–1.08) 0.111
Age (per 1 year increase) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.672 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.850
HBV-DNA (per 1 log10 IU/ml increase) 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 0.208 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 0.409
LAM 4.03 (1.97–8.25) < 0.0001 4.60 (1.87–11.31) 0.001
ADV 0.42 (0.27–0.65) < 0.0001 0.53 (0.33–0.86) 0.009
ETV 0.99 (0.57–1.73) 0.981 2.02 (0.95–4.29) 0.068
TDF 1.10 (0.52–2.31) 0.805 1.58 (0.67–3.73) 0.294
Geographical origin
 Southa 1   1  
 West 1.01 (0.65–1.58) 0.951 0.75 (0.43–1.32) 0.323
 North 0.58 (0.21–1.58) 0.287 0.49 (0.17–1.41) 0.184
 East 1.79 (1.18–2.71) 0.006 1.22 (0.64–2.33) 0.552
Year of collection
 1997-2002a 1   1  
 2003–2005 0.58 (0.29–1.17) 0.128 0.88 (0.41–1.92) 0.754
 2006–2008 0.61 (0.34–1.08) 0.088 1.09 (0.54–2.19) 0.817
 2009–2012 0.72 (0.41–1.27) 0.259 0.83 (0.36–1.88) 0.650
Genotype (A vs. Da) 2.15 (1.53–3.02) < 0.0001 2.03 (1.32–3.10) 0.001
  1. a Reference group (dummy)
  2. P-value in italic are statistically significant
  3. Abbreviations: ADV adefovir, CI Confidence interval, ETV entecavir, LAM lamivudine, OR Odd ratio, TDF tenofovir