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Table 2 Factors associated with the presence of at least one immune-associated escape mutation by fitting a uni-multivariable logistic regression model

From: Immune-escape mutations and stop-codons in HBsAg develop in a large proportion of patients with chronic HBV infection exposed to anti-HBV drugs in Europe

Variables Univariate analysisb Multivariate analysisb
crude OR [95% CI] p-value adjusted OR [95% CI] p-value
Gender (Female vs. Malea) 1.16 (0.76–1.78) 0.483 1.20 (0.77–1.87) 0.432
Age (per 1 year increase) 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 0.010 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 0.013
HBV-DNA (per 1 log10 IU/ml increase) 1.03 (0.94–1.14) 0.490 1.10 (0.99–1.23) 0.079
LAM 1.16 (0.65–2.08) 0.616 1.46 (0.71–3.02) 0.307
ADV 1.44 (0.96–2.17) 0.078 1.31 (0.83–2.06) 0.250
ETVc 1.28 (0.71–2.31) 0.409 2.04 (0.97–4.29) 0.060
TDF 0.76 (0.31–1.87) 0.547 1.13 (0.43–3.02) 0.803
Geographical origin
 Southa 1   1  
 West 0.71 (0.43–1.17) 0.175 1.03 (0.55–1.89) 0.937
 North 0.55 (0.18–1.62) 0.276 0.72 (0.23–2.28) 0.581
 East 0.75 (0.46–1.22) 0.250 1.26 (0.62–2.55) 0.519
Year of collection
 1997-2002a 1   1  
 2003–2005 1.07 (0.42–2.71) 0.892 0.79 (0.28–2.20) 0.651
 2006–2008 2.37 (1.11–5.07) 0.026 1.65 (0.67–4.01) 0.273
 2009–2012 1.79 (0.84–3.83) 0.134 1.36 (0.50–3.68) 0.547
Genotype (D vs. Aa) 2.19 (1.43–3.34) < 0.0001 2.20 (1.32–3.67) 0.002
  1. a Reference group
  2. b The analysis was led on 650 patients for whom type of anti-HBV drugs received was known
  3. c Among 64 ETV-treated patients, 26 received LMV
  4. P-value in italic are statistically significant
  5. Abbreviations: ADV adefovir, CI Confidence interval, ETV entecavir, LAM lamivudine, OR Odd ratio, TDF tenofovir