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Table 4 Median plasma cytokine concentrations

From: HBV and HIV viral load but not microbial translocation or immune activation are associated with liver fibrosis among patients in South Africa

  Units LDL HBV/HIV, n = 45 HBV, n = 44 HIV, n = 39 Control, n = 19 p p2
IL-1β pg/ml 0.47 1.3 (0.9–2.8) 2 (1.5–3.1) 1.2 (0.9–1.9) 1.7 (1.2–2.8) 0.001 0.0004
IL-1ra pg/ml 5.33 59 (40.4–100.8) 110.8 (85.1–376.7) 62.2 (40.4–85.8) 69.8 (53.7–106.3) < 0.00001 < 0.00001
IL-2 pg/ml 1.52 0 (0–5.4) 8 (0.5–18.4) 0 (0–7.3) 0 (0–4.7) 0.0002 0.0002
IL-4 pg/ml 0.24 2.2 (1.6–3) 2.8 (2.1–4.1) 2.2 (1.6–3.2) 2.3 (2–2.9) 0.03 0.02
IL-5a pg/ml 1.00 0 (0–7) 0 (0–15.5) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–4) n/a n/a
IL-6 pg/ml 1.68 10 (0.8–18.3) 11.3 (7.2–29.3) 4.3 (0.5–10.3) 6.3 (1.5–12.5) 0.002 0.005
IL-7 pg/ml 0.84 9 (3.7–14.6) 7.4 (2.5–14.8) 1.2 (0–7.9) 5.9 (1.2–9) 0.002 0.001
IL-8 pg/ml 2.44 26.8 (19.5–53.3) 51.9 (22.8–121.8) 21.7 (13.9–43.6) 120.1 (35.2–437.2) < 0.00001 0.002
IL-9 pg/ml 1.19 54.7 (44.5–73.8) 73.1 (55.6–118.5) 59.5 (45.5–83.7) 78.2 (57.6–97.1) 0.01 0.02
IL-10 pg/ml 2.21 10.2 (5.8–18.8) 15.9 (11.3–29.2) 9.5 (5.6–14.5) 9.7 (7.7–15.9) 0.001 0.005
IL-12 pg/ml 2.25 50.8 (31.9–63.6) 47.4 (27.1–87.9) 35.2 (19.4–59.9) 44.5 (31.7–65.4) 0.3 0.2
IL-13 pg/ml 0.40 12 (6.2–24.8) 13.8 (8–29.6) 9.5 (5.2–13.7) 6.5 (4.8–10.4) 0.004 0.02
IL-15a pg/ml 5.73 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) n/a  
IL-17 pg/ml 5.81 44.5 (27.7–84.3) 81.7 (61.6–133.2) 67.7 (54.1–111.9) 78.5 (64.1–110.4) 0.004 0.006
EOTAXIN pg/ml 1.75 107.9 (81.2–172.8) 129.3 (72.1–171.3) 115.8 (73.9–160.1) 142.5 (93.1–261.1) 0.4 0.8
Basic-FGF pg/ml 3.91 43.1 (21.8–66.9) 65.7 (46.2–92.3) 44.8 (24.2–61.3) 50.4 (34.2–65.7) 0.0006 0.0002
G-CSF pg/ml 3.06 51.1 (32.1–66.1) 59.7 (44.1–98.6) 41.9 (30.3–58.1) 37.6 (32.1–66.1) 0.006 0.004
GM-CSF pg/ml 2.9 0 (0–22.2) 25.5 (0–87.6) 0 (0–35.7) 0.6 (0–15.3) 0.006 0.003
IFN-γ pg/ml 42.9 88.7 (57.5–145.3) 121.2 (80.1–182.0) 66.7 (48–125.7) 97.2 (51.1–116.7) 0.004 0.004
IP-10 ng/ml 4.94 1.5 (1.0–2.8) 0.9 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1 (0.8–1.2) 0.0001 0.0001
MCP-1 pg/ml 1.24 4.7 (0–27.2) 21.3 (0–54.4) 0.4 (0–20.5) 17.3 (0–78.8) 0.03 0.2
MIP-1a pg/ml 0.15 4.4 (1.3–7.7) 7.3 (4.6–11.4) 4.7 (2.5–6.3) 8.2 (5.3–10.3) 0.001 0.006
PDGF ng/ml 1.00 2.4 (1.7–3.3) 3.2 (1.8–3.9) 2.9 (1.9–3.8) 3.3 (2.3–4.5) 0.09 0.2
MIP-1b pg/ml 0.46 140.9 (95.5–218.8) 147.3 (102.7–199.1) 128.8 (103.8–227.4) 217 (155.5–264.7) 0.06 0.9
RANTES ng/ml 3.72 19.9 (16.7–26.7) 19.0 (13.8–23.1) 19.1 (16.7–22.6) 22.1 (17.8–24.7) 0.2 0.3
TNF-a pg/ml 3.77 19.5 (15.1–27.4) 23.5 (18.5–54.5) 19.5 (15–24) 18.5 (15.1–26.2) 0.01 0.007
VEGF pg/ml 2.30 88.9 (52.2–147.7) 117.7 (60–211.5) 77.8 (45.2–138) 89.6 (51.5–160.5) 0.2 0.09
TGF-β1 ng/ml   41.7 (34.1–53.6) 46.4 (38.3–56.8) 49.7 (42.1–55.7) 48.2 (42.5–55) 0.10 0.06
TGF-β2 ng/ml   1.8 (1.7–1.9) 2.1 (1.8–2.4) 2.3 (1.8–2.5) 2 (1.7–2.4) < 0.00001 < 0.00001
TGF-β3 ng/ml   1.3(1.2–1.5) 1.9 (1.4–2.2) 2.2 (1.5–2.3) 1.8 (1.4–2.2) < 0.00001 < 0.00001
  1. aPlasma levels of IL-5 and IL-15 were below detection limit in most samples across the groups hence the medians of 0 pg/ml. Column heading p2 shows the level of significance of Kruskal-Wallis test excluding the control group