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Table 1 Demographic, immunologic and virologic characteristics of study participants according to group

From: HBV and HIV viral load but not microbial translocation or immune activation are associated with liver fibrosis among patients in South Africa

  HBV/HIV
(n = 46)
HBV
(n = 47)
HIV
(n = 39)
Controls
(n = 37)
p
Age in years (mean ± standard deviation) 38.5 ± 8.2 37.9 ± 12.3 37.9 ± 9.7 43.8 ± 11.4 0.04
Males (%) 22 (47%) 22 (47%) 16 (39%) 25 (41%) 0.1
Ethnicity, n (%)
 African 31 (67%) 18 (38%) 17 (44%) 5(14%)  
 Mixed 14 (32%) 25 (53%) 22 (56%) 30 (81%) 0.0001b
 Caucasian 1 (1%) 3 (7%) 2 (5%)  
 Asian 1 (2%)  
Body mass index 24.3 ± 5.1 28.0 ± 9.0 24.6 ± 3.5 27.0 ± 5.9 0.2
Alcohol consumption 8/46 (17%) 9/47 (19%) 11/39 (28%) 14/37 (38%) 0.1
Herbal medicine use (current/past) 1/46 (2%) 5/47 (11%) 1/39 (3%) 5/37 (14%) 0.11
ART, months
Median (IQR)
36 (23–63) n/a 36 (12–63) n/a  
CD4 count, (cells/μL)
Median (IQR)
328
(242–562)
922
(647–1297)
528
(367–657)
1031
(790–1215)
< 0.0001
CD4/CD8 ratio
Median (IQR)
0.5 (0.3–0.7) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.7 (0.6–1.0) 1.6 (1.3–2.1) < 0.0001
CD4 nadir 256 (144–369)   281 (169–440)   0.2
Detectable plasma HIV-1 viral load 10/36 (27.8%) n/a 6/33 (18.1%) n/a 0.4
HIV-1 viral load > 1000 copies/mla 6/36 (17%) n/a 3/33 (9.1%) n/a 0.5
Detectable plasma HBV DNA 22/45 (49%) 32/44 (73%) n/a n/a 0.03
Plasma HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mlc 12/45 (26%) 15/44 (32%) n/a n/a 0.5
HBeAg positive, (%) 13/46 (28%) 6/46 (13%) n/a n/a 0.1
  1. a1000 copies/ml chosen for HIV-1 viral load as this defines virological failure in patients on ART
  2. bIndicates where a chi test was used for statistical analysis
  3. cHBV DNA > 2000 IU/ml cut-off used as it may indicate the need for therapy in some patients