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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 342 episodes of invasive candidiasis in neonatal versus non-neonatal pediatric children

From: Comparison of the incidence, clinical features and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in children and neonates

Characteristic Neonatal episodes (total n = 113) Non-neonatal pediatric episodes (total n = 229) P value
Patient age, median (IQR) 27.0 (19.0–56.0) days 3.8 (1.2–10.6) years
Sex, male subjects/female subjects 68 (60.2)/45 (39.8) 110 (48.0)/119 (52.0) 0.039
Gestational age (weeks), median (IQR) 27.0 (25.0–29.0)
Underlying conditionsa
 Congenital or genetic anomalies 9 (8.0) 25 (10.9) 0.447
 Neurological sequelae 22 (19.5) 101 (44.1) <  0.001
 Cardiovascular disease 9 (8.0) 22 (9.6) 0.693
 Chronic lung disease and/or pulmonary hypertension 60 (53.1) 33 (14.4) <  0.001
 Gastrointestinal sequelae 26 (23.0) 69 (30.1) 0.119
 Renal sufficiency with/without dialysis 8 (7.1) 31 (13.5) 0.103
 Hematological/Oncology cancer 0 (0) 48 (21.0) <  0.001
 Immunodeficiency 1 (0.9) 6 (2.6) 0.344
 Autoimmune disease 0 (0) 8 (3.5) 0.056
 Hepatic failure or cholestasis 4 (3.5) 9 (3.9) 1.000
 Othersb 1 (0.9) 1 (0.4)
Days of hospitalization before onset of invasive candidiasis, median (IQR) 26.0 (17.0–55.0) 29.5 (13.0–49.0) 0.818
Sequences of episodes    0.371
 First episode 96 (85.0) 185 (80.8)  
 Recurrent episode 17 (15.0) 44 (19.2)  
Associated risk factorsb
 Receipt of systemic antibioticsc 106 (93.8) 208 (90.8) 0.407
 Prior bacteremiac 43 (38.1) 126 (55.0) 0.004
 Prior azoles exposurec 10 (8.8) 21 (9.2) 1.000
 Presence of central venous catheter 108 (95.6) 214 (93.4) 0.625
 Stay in an intensive care unit 113 (100) 124 (54.1) <  0.001
 Receipt of parenteral nutrition 105 (92.9) 116 (50.7) <  0.001
 Receipt of immunosuppressive drugs 3 (2.7) 65 (28.4) <  0.001
 Presence of artificial device other than central venous catheter 34 (30.1) 133 (58.1) <  0.001
 Prior surgeryc 31 (27.4) 79 (34.5) 0.219
 Neutropeniad 12 (10.6) 70 (30.6) <  0.001
  1. All data were expressed as number (percentage %), unless indicated otherwise; IQR interquartile range
  2. aIndicated the presence of underlying condition or risk factor at onset of invasive candidiasis, and most episodes occurred in patients with > 1 underlying condition or risk factor
  3. bOne neonatal episode occurred in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa, and one non-neonatal pediatric episode occurred in a patient with diabetes mellitus
  4. cWithin 1 month prior onset of invasive candidiasis
  5. dAbsolute neutrophil count ≤500 cells/μL