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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors associated with anti-HEV IgG-seropositivity among 1562 blood donors. Only variables with P < 0.05 in uni- and/or multivariate analyses are shown. The multivariate logistic regression model, adjusted for age and gender, was based on backward selection of variables with P < 0.15 in univariate analyses

From: Risk factors for hepatitis E virus seropositivity in Dutch blood donors

  Univariate analyses Multivariate analyses
Seropositivity n/N (%) OR (95% CI) P-value aOR (95% CI) P-value
A. General factors
 Gender    0.121   0.692
  Men 397/1234 (32.2%) 1.0   1.0  
  Women 91/328 (27.7%) 0.8 (0.6-1.1)   0.9 (0.7-1.3)  
 Age groups in years    < 0.001   < 0.001
   < 30 4/24 (16.7) 1.0   1.0  
  30-40 7/75 (9.3) 0.5 (0.1-1.9)   0.4 (0.1-1.5)  
  40-50 61/255 (23.9) 1.6 (0.5-4.8)   1.2 (0.4-3.8)  
  50-60 169/561 (30.1) 2.2 (0.7-6.4)   1.7 (0.5-5.1)  
   > 60 247/647 (38.2) 3.1 (1.0-9.1)   2.4 (0.8-7.2)  
 Level of education    0.002   
  Low/intermediate 272/780 (34.9%) 1.0    
  High 213/770 (27.7%) 0.7 (0.6-0.9)    
 Alcohol consumption    0.042   
   < =6 drinks per week 277/938 (29.5%) 1.0    
   > 7 195/564 (34.6%) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)    
 Traveling history to South America    0.016   
  No 377/1145 (32.9%) 1.0    
  Yes 111/416 (26.6%) 0.7 (0.6-0.9)    
B. Food consumption last 2 months
Pork food products
 Pork tenderloin    0.009   
  No 247/867 (28.5%) 1.0    
  Yes 241/695 (34.7%) 1.3 (1.1-1.7)    
 Pork chop    0.001   
  No 311/1083 (28.7%) 1.0    
  Yes 177/479 (37.0%) 1.5 (1.2-1.8)    
 Pork belly    0.037   
  No 267/915 (29.2%) 1.0    
  Yes 221/647 (34.2%) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)    
 Smoked sausage    0.044   
  No 201/702 (28.6%) 1.0    
  Yes 287/860 (33.4%) 1.2 (1.0-1.6)    
Raw or dry sausages
 Farmer sausage    0.006   
  No 340/1159 (29.3%) 1.0    
  Yes 148/403 (36.7%) 1.4 (1.1-1.8)    
 Traditional Dutch dry raw sausagesa (“salami” “salametti” “cervelaat” “fijnkost”)    < 0.001   < 0.001
  No 176/673 (26.2%) 1.5   1.0  
  Yes 312/889 (35.1%) 1.3 (1.2-1.9)   1.5 (1.2-1.9)  
 Liver cheese/ Leberkäse    0.001   
  No 371/1267 (29.3%) 1.0    
  Yes 117/295 (39.7%) 1.6 (1.2-2.1)    
 Pork liver slices    0.001   
  No 408/1370 (29.8%) 1.0    
  Yes 80/192 (41.7%) 1.7 (1.2-2.3)    
 Other dry sausagese    0.033   0.022
  No 438/1436 (30.5%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 50/126 (39.7%) 1.5 (1.0-2.2)   1.6 (1.1-2.4)  
Spreadable pork
 Regional raw pork sausage “Brabantse metworst”    0.036   
  No 471/1526 (30.9%) 1.0    
  Yes 17/36 (47.2%) 2.0 (1.0-3.9)    
 Tea sausage    0.017   
  No 467/1518 (30.8%) 1.0    
  Yes 21/44 (47.7%) 2.1 (1.1-3.7)    
 Pâté / liver sausageb    0.011   
  No 197/704 (27.9%) 1.0    
  Yes 291/858 (33.9%) 1.3 (1.1-1.6)    
Beef      
 Steak    0.023   0.022
  No 189/671 (28.2%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 299/891 (33.6%) 1.3 (1.0-1.6)   1.3 (1.0-1.7)  
 Smoked beef      0.020
  No 318/1107 (28.7%) 1.0 0.001 1.0  
  Yes 170/455 (37.4%) 1.5 (1.2-1.9)   1.3 (1.0-1.7)  
 Ox sausage    0.021   
  No 375/1254 (29.9%) 1.0    
  Yes 113/308 (36.7%) 1.4 (1.0-1.8)    
Fruits and vegetables
 Raspberries    0.031   0.039
  No 429/1328 (32.3%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 59/234 (25.2%) 0.7 (0.5-1.0)   0.7 (0.5-1.0)  
C. Food outside the home
 Restaurant visit    0.003   0.009
   < 1 time per month 234/667 (35.1%) 1.0   1.0  
   > 1 time per month 234/868 (28.0%) 0.7 (0.6-0.9)   0.7 (0.6-0.9)  
D. Contact with water or animals in the last 2 months     
 Contact with contaminated waterc    0.008   0.001
  No 458/1497 (30.6%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 30/65 (46.2%) 1.9 (1.2-3.2)   2.5 (1.5-4.4)  
 Contact with dogs    0.066   0.013
  No 214/632 (33.9%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 274/930 (29.5%) 0.8 (0.7-1.0)   0.7 (0.6-0.9)  
 Contact with wild animalsd    0.072   0.025
  No 470/1481 (31.7%) 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 18/81 (22.2%) 0.6 (0.4-1.0)   0.5 (0.3-0.9)  
  1. aOR: Odds ratio adjusted for age and gender
  2. 95% CI: 95%-confidence interval
  3. aCombined variable, created based on “salami”, “salametti”, “cervelaat” and “fijnkost”
  4. bCombined variable, created based on several (open) questions
  5. cCombined variable, created based on “removed water from a stable”, “worked with a septic tank” and “contact with sewage”
  6. dCombined variable based on contact with deer (n = 7), roe (n = 4), wild boar (n = 0), hare (n = 7), rat (n = 9), mice (n = 54), and/or other wild animals (n = 21)
  7. eVariable based on an open question, including very diverse both national and international (local) meat products, five most reported: fuet (n = 12, 10.3%), saucisson d’Ardenne (n = 10, 8.6%), French dry sausage (n = 9, 7.8%), grilled sausage (n = 8, 6.9%), smoked bacon called “katenspek” (n = 6, 5.2%)