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Table 3 Acute hepatitis B in Poland 2010–2014. Distribution of cases by reported exposure and risk factors

From: Significant proportion of acute hepatitis B in Poland in 2010–2014 attributed to hospital transmission: combining surveillance and public registries data

   N of cases %
Total   459 100.0
Exposure on hepatitis B risk factors Any medical procedures 286 62.0
(more than one could be mentioned) Medical procedures in hospitala 170 37.0
  Invasive procedures 96 20.9
  Medical procedures outside hospitalb 114 24.8
  Tattooing/piercing or beauty treatmentsc 46 10.0
  Injection drug use 20 4.4
  HBV infected sexual partner or risky contacts 35 7.6
  HBV infected household 25 5.4
  Otherd 12 2.6
  Unknown/none identified 97 21.1
Migration status Polish origin 448 97.6
  immigrant 8 1.7
  unk 3 0.7
Possible importation No 425 92.6
  Yes 15 3.3
  unk (transmission unknown) 19 4.1
Vaccination status Fully vaccinated 29 6.3
  Incompletely vaccinated 27 5.9
  Not vaccinated 326 71.0
  Vaccination status unknown 77 16.8
Health care worker No 456 99.3
  Yes 3 0.7
  1. aIncludes invasive and minimally invasive surgery, transfusion, dialysis, childbirths, biopsies, endoscopy, injections
  2. bIncludes dental treatments and extraction, procedures in outpatient clinics like injections, endoscopy, biopsy and other minimally invasive procedures
  3. cIncludes acupuncture, tattoo, piercing, botox cosmetic, mesotherapy, shaving
  4. dIncludes mother-to child-infections, occupational exposure, stay in prison, sniffing drugs, street fighting and accidental injuries