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Table 1 Distribution of demographics and medical conditions of study participants, stratified by treatment group

From: Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 on carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: results of the impact of probiotics for reducing infections in veterans (IMPROVE) study

  Probiotic (N = 52)
n (%)
Placebo (N = 61)
n (%)
P-value
Age (mean), (Q1, Q2) 64.4 (55.5, 69) 62.9 (57, 68) 0.7322
Gender (Male) 49 (94.2) 56 (91.8) 0.7239
Ambulatory Status (Inpatient) 4 (7.7) 3 (4.9) 0.5633
Regular Probiotic Usea 17 (32.7) 22 (36.1) 0.8429
History of C. difficile Infection 1 (1.9) 1 (1.6) 1.0000
History of Gram Negative Bacilli Infection 5 (9.6) 9 (14.8) 0.5686
History of MRSA Infection 15 (28.9) 12 (19.7) 0.2763
History of MSSA Infection 3 (5.8) 5 (8.2) 0.7239
History of VRE Infection 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.0000
History of Candida Infection 3 (5.8) 1 (1.6) 0.3325
Ongoing Clinical Infection of Any Type 1 (1.9) 2 (3.3) 1.0000
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 1 (1.9) 1 (1.6) 1.0000
Current Active Surgical Wound 4 (7.7) 2 (3.3) 0.4113
Current Active Cancer 2 (3.9) 2 (3.3) 0.5780
Current Coronary Artery Disease 23 (44.2) 22 (36.1) 0.5018
Current Diabetes 17 (32.7) 22 (36.1) 0.8429
Current Insulin Requirement for Diabetes 7 (13.5) 8 (13.1) 1.0000
Current Gastrointestinal Disease 27 (51.9) 30 (49.2) 0.9202
Current Hemodialysis 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6) 1.0000
Current Liver Disease 3 (5.8) 13 (21.3) 0.0282
Current Lung Disease 18 (34.6) 16 (26.2) 0.4114
Current Neutropenia 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6) 1.0000
Current Open Wound 2 (3.9) 2 (3.3) 0.6650
Current Peripheral Vascular Disease 7 (13.5) 8 (13.1) 1.0000
Current Renal Failure 2 (3.9) 3 (4.9) 1.0000
Current Skin Condition 14 (26.9) 11 (18.0) 0.2672
Current Alcohol or Drug Abuse 3 (5.8) 1 (1.6) 0.3325
Current Smoker 10 (19.2) 14 (23.0) 0.7040
  1. Abbreviations: Q quartile, C. clostridium, MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MSSA methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, VRE vancomycin resistant Enterococci
  2. aThis category includes all types of probiotics, and yogurts that may or may not include probiotics