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Table 2 Household characteristics of study areas in the district of Kandy as a percentage (n = 200)

From: Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka

Factors Study area χ2
Akurana KMC Gangawata Korale Kundasale Gampola
Accessibility Main road 6.0a 11.0a 15.5b 4.0a 7.5a χ2 = 23.82 (df = 8)
Medium/Small road 91.0 85.5 78.5 91.0 87.5
Foot path/No road 3.0 3.5 6.0 5.0 5.0
Size of the homestead (Perch) < 5 4.0a 70.0b 2.5a 5.0c 6.0a χ2 = 97.65 (df = 16)
6 to 10 19.5 6.0 28.0 58.0 26.0
11 to 25 46.5 18.0 57.0 30.0 50.0
26 to 50 21.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 13.0
>  50 8.5 2.0 8.5 3.0 5.0
Nature of human dwellings Permanent 89.5a 99.5b 95.0a 84.5a 99.0b χ2 = 54.46 (df = 4)
Temporary 10.5 0.5 5.0 15.5 1.0
Number of houses present in the land plot 1 72.0a 97.0b 96.0b 94.0b 96.5b χ2 = 115.55 (df = 8)
2 to 3 27.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 3.5
>  4 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Type of the households Individual House 96.0a 92.0a 98.0a 96.0a 94.0a χ2 = 9.10 (ns) (df = 12)
< 5 floors 4.0 8.0 2.0 4.0 6.0
>  5 floors 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Residential function of the households Residential only 93.5a 95.0a 98.0a 91.5a 95.5a χ2 = 20.55 (ns) (df = 12)
Residential & commercial 4.5 5.0 2.0 4.0 4.5
Small industry 2.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0
Commercial only 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Status of the households Good 29.0a 18.0b 11.5b 7.5b 16.0b χ2 = 151.83 (df = 8)
Moderate 24.5 66.5 75.5 70.5 66.0
Poor 46.5 15.5 13.0 22.0 18.0
Number of rooms in the house 1 13.0a 0.0b 6.0c 4.0c 3.0c χ2 = 76.09 (df = 12)
2 to 3 76.0 95.0 94.0 94.0 92.5
4 to 6 10.0 5.0 0.0 2.0 3.5
>  6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0
Vegetation coverage Grass 39.5a 16.5b 40.5c 46.0c 56.0c χ2 = 104.97 (df = 12)
Bushes 26.5 48.5 45.0 41.5 47.0
Small trees 40.6 29.5 62.0 53.5 59.0
Large trees 87.5 5.5 46.5 40.5 55.0
Surrounding landuse practices in the neighbourhood Agricultural areas 0.0a 2.0b 16.5c 24.0d 20.0c χ2 = 110.39 (df = 20)
Water bodies 0.0 1.5 3.0 1.0 3.0
Built-up 48.0 81.5 68.5 52.0 74.0
Marshy 56.0 4.0 8.5 3.0 5.0
Abundant 12.0 5.5 5.0 24.5 7.5
Other 5.0 5.5 2.0 4.0 2.0
Nature of the toilet facilities Separate (Outside) 75.0a 67.0a 89.5b 88.5b 79.5a χ2 = 81.16 (df = 12)
Attached 40.0 50.0 23.0 15.5 41.0
Both 18.0 17.0 12.5 8.5 20.5
None 3.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.0
Water source Well 2.0a 0.0a 0.0a 0.0b 2.0a χ2 = 38.98 (df = 12)
Tube-well 4.0 0.0 6.0 10.0 3.0
Pipe 98.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5
Roofing conditions Concrete 42.0a 38.5a 24.0b 10.5c 30.0b χ2 = 109.93 (df = 16)
Roof tiles 31.0 21.0 56.0 37.5 50.5
Asbestos 53.0 63.5 71.0 78.0 71.0
Metal sheets 61.0 53.0 27.5 68.0 31.5
Other 3.0 2.5 4.0 10.5 4.5
  1. Different superscript letters (a, b, c and d) in the first row of each factor show significant dissimilarities among the study populations (p < 0.05) as a post-hoc comparison as suggested by “Chi-square test for Independence”, while similar superscript letters indicate significant similarities
  2. KMC Kandy Municipal Council area, df degree of freedom for each variable, χ2 Chi-square value. Except for “type of households” and “residential function of households”, all contingency tests (χ2 tests) were significant at least at 0.05 probability level. ns – not significant at 0.05 probability level