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Table 4 Univariate analysis of risk factors for Buruli ulcer disease in Zio and Yoto districts of Maritime Region, Togo, May 19–30, 2015

From: Risk factors for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli Ulcer) in Togo ─ a case-control study in Zio and Yoto districts of the maritime region

Characteristics Cases n (%) Controls n (%) Univariable OR (95% CI) p*
Farming 77 (92.8) 120 (93.8) 0.86 (0.29–2.56) 0.78
Farming activities
 Plowing 79 (83.1) 117 (91.4) 0.46 (0.19–1.01) 0.07
 Sowing 73 (88.0) 123 (96.1) 0.29 (0.09–0.90) 0.03
 Harvesting 74 (89.2) 125 (97.7) 0.19 (0.05–0.75) 0.01
Exposure to water
Primary source of drinking water
 River or stream 38 (45.8) 58 (45.3) 1.02 (0.58–1.77) 0.95
 Open borehole 15 (18.1) 23 (18.0) 1.0 (0.49–2.01) 0.98
 Borehole with pump 75 (90.4) 119 (93.0) 0.71 (0.26–1.92) 0.49
Primary source of washing water
 River or stream 42 (50.6) 60 (46.9) 1.16 (0.68–2.02) 0.59
 Open borehole 21 (25.3) 28 (21.9) 1.21 (0.63–2.31) 0.56
 Borehole with pump 73 (88.0) 116 (90.6) 0.75 (0.31–1.83) 0.54
 Bathing with a water from an open borehole 9 (10.8) 3 (2.3) 5.07 (1.33–19.31) 0.01
 Standing water in house 10 (12.0) 18 (14.1) 0.86 (0.38–1.97) 0.72
 Swam, waded or bathed in a river or stream 37 (44.6) 37 (28.9) 1.98 (1.11–3.52) 0.02
 Crossed a body of water 48 (57.8) 55 (43.0) 1.93 (1.09–3.39) 0.02
 Received cuts, scratches and thorn pricks near a river 49 (62.8) 60 (47.2) 1.88 (1.06–3.36) 0.03
Exposure to insect bite
 Received insect bite near a river 50 (64.9) 59 (46.5) 2.13 (1.19–3.83) 0.01
location of insect bite on the body
 Head 48 (57.8) 56 (43.8) 1.76 (1.01–3.08) 0.05
 Forearms 50 (60.2) 57 (44.5) 1.88 (1.08–3.31) 0.03
 Arms 50 (60.2) 59 (46.1) 1.77 (1.01–3.10) 0.04
 Hands 49 (59.0) 57 (44.5) 1.79 (1.03–3.14) 0.04
 trunk 48 (57.8) 57 (44.5) 1.70 (0.98–2.98) 0.06
 thigh 48 (57.8) 56 (43.8) 1.76 (1.01–3.08) 0.05
 Legs 48 (57.8) 57 (44.5) 1.70 (0.98–2.98) 0.06
 Feet 48 (57.8) 57 (44.5) 1.70 (0.98–2.98) 0.06
 Mosquito bite in house 75 (90.4) 124 (96.9) 0.95 (0.48–1.89) 0.90
Exposure to animals
 Owned livestock or pets 60 (77.9) 100 (78.7) 0.95 (0.48–1.89) 0.89
 Handled livestock or pets 12 (15.6) 26 (20.6) 0.71 (0.33–1.50) 0.37
 Share indoor living space with livestock or pets 24 (32.4) 37 (29.4) 1.15 (0.62–2.14) 0.65
 Bitten or scratched by animals 5 (6.7) 10 (7.8) 0.84 (0.27–2.56) 0.76
Exposure to infectious agents
 BCG vaccination 41 (51.2) 64 (50.4) 1.03 (0.59–1.181) 0.90
Soap use while bathing
 Sometimes 5 (6.4) 10 (7.9) 1  
 Always 73 (93.6) 117 (92.1) 0.80 (0.26–2.43) 0.69
Soap use while washing
 Sometimes 5 (6.0) 0 (0.0) 1  
 Always 78 (94.0) 128 (100.0) 0.38 (0.32–0.45) 0.01
Clothing worn while farming
 Trousers 40 (48.2) 92 (71.9) 0.36 (0.20–0.65) 0.001
 Top shirt 76 (91.6) 120 (93.8) 0.72 (0.25–2.01) 0.55
 Closed shoes 9 (10.8) 26 (20.3) 0.48 (0.21–1.08) 0.07
 Dress 34 (41.0) 48 (37.5) 1.16 (0.66–2.03) 0.61
 Open shoes 73 (88.0) 110 (85.9) 1.19 (0.522–2.73) 0.67
 Hat 6 (7.2) 35 (27.3) 0.21 (0.08–0.52) 0.001
Clothing worn in non-farming activity
 Trousers 33 (39.8) 61 (47.7) 0.72 (0.41–1.27) 0.26
 Top shirt 73 (88.0) 118 (92.2) 0.62 (0.25–1.56) 0.31
 Closed shoes 4 (4.8) 5 (3.9) 1.25 (0.32–4.78) 0.74
 Dress 33 (39.8) 54 (42.2) 0.90 (0.51–1.59) 0.73
 Open shoes 72 (86.7) 114 (89.1) 0.80 (0.35–1.87) 0.61
 Hat 1 (1.2) 7 (5.5) 0.21 (0.25–1.75) 0.15
Insect protection products use
 Sometimes 74 (96.1) 118 (92.2) 1 0.27
 Always 3 (3.9) 10 (7.8) 0.59 (0.22–1.64)  
Bednets use
 Sometimes 40 (51.3) 76 (59.4) 1  
 Always 38 (48.7) 52 (40.6) 0.72 (0.41–1.27) 0.26
Perception and etiology of the BUD 68 (88.3) 113 (88.3) 1.00 (0.42–2.42) 0.99
Behavior and beliefs
 Poor hygiene cause Buruli ulcer 57 (81.4) 116 (91.3) 0.42 (0.17–0.99) 0.04
 Seeking treatment with plants 4 (5.3) 10 (7.9) 0.64 (0.19–2.12) 0.47
  1. *Boldface type indicates differences that were statistically significant at p < 0.05 between cases and controls
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