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Table 3 Factors associated with positive oral HPV DNA at univariable and multivariable analysis

From: Oral human Papillomavirus DNA detection in HIV-positive men: prevalence, predictors, and co-occurrence at anal site

  Positive HPV DNA (n/total) Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis§
OR (95% CI) p aOR (95% CI) p
Age, years
  ≥ 45 26/146 1   1  
  < 45 38/159 1.45 (0.83–2.54) 0.193 1.09 (0.59–2.00) 0.791
Current use of recreational drugs
 No or former 49/258 1   1 0.422
 Yes 15/47 2.0 (1.01–3.98) 0.048* 1.36 (0.64–2.90)  
Current cigarette smoking
 No or former 28/160 1    
 Yes 36/145 1.58 (0.89–2.71) 0.118   
Duration of HIV infection, years
  < 2 11/55 1    
 2–4 13/80 0.78 (0.32–1.89) 0.576   
  > 4 35/142 1.23 (0.58–2.61) 0.587   
cART
 No 4/16 1    
 Yes 60/289 0.79 (0.25–2.52) 0.686   
CD4+ cell count/μl
  ≥ 200 58/297 1   1  
  < 200 6/8 12.36 (2.43–62.83) 0.002* 12.58 (2.19–72.30) 0.005*
HIV RNA, copies/mL,
 Not detected or detectable ≤40 52/268 1 0.072 1 0.277
  > 40 12/37 1.99 (0.94–4.23)   1.59 (0.69–3.70)  
Type of sexual partner
 Heterosexual 5/33 1    
 Homosexual 28/135 1.47 (0.52–4.14) 0.471   
 Bisexual 31/137 1.64 (0.58–4.60) 0.349   
N. of sexual partners in lifetime
  < 10 2/27 1    
 10–100 14/126 1.56 (0.33–7.32) 0.571   
  > 100 48/152 5.77 (1.31–25.35) 0.020*   
N. of sexual partners in the last 12 months
 0–1 16/120 1   1  
 2–5 17/80 1.75 (0.83–3.72) 0.143 2.01 (0.90–4.49) 0.090
  > 5 31/105 2.72 (1.39–5.34) 0.004* 2.78 (1.30–5.93) 0.008*
Oral sex
 No or insertive 3/30 1    
 Receptive/both 61/275 2.57 (0.75–8.74) 0.132   
Anal HPV DNA
 Negative 5/45 1   1  
 Positive 59/260 2.35 (0.89–6.22) 0.086 1.72 (0.63–4.68) 0.289
History of anal/genital condylomatosis
 No 33/193 1   1  
 Yes 31/112 1.86 (1.06–3.24) 0.030* 1.42 (0.78–2.58) 0.252
  1. OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, cART combination antiretroviral therapy
  2. § In the model all variables found to be associated with positive oral HPV DNA at univariate analysis at p < 0.10 were included, forcing age. The variable “N. of sexual partner in the previous 12 months” instead of “N. of sexual partners in lifetime” was used to avoid collinearity
  3. * p < 0.05; ‡ p < 0.10