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Table 4 Treatment and outcomes of 284 hospitalised children meeting the clinical case definition for CNS infection

From: The aetiologies of central nervous system infections in hospitalised Cambodian children

Feature 1-11 m 1-4y 5-15y Overall P-value
  (n = 68) (n = 108) (n = 108) (n = 284)  
Admission duration (days), median (range) 5 (1–49) 4 (1–23) 7 (0–68) 5 (0–68) <0.0001
Empiric antibiotic treatmenta, n (%)
Ampicillin 1 (1.5) 2 (1.9) 0 (0) 3 (1.1) 0.3
Ceftriaxone 41 (60.3) 67 (62.0) 92 (85.2) 200 (70.4) 0.0001
Imipenem / meropenem 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 0.9
Other single antibiotic drug 1 (1.5) 5 (4.6) 2 (1.9) 8 (2.8) 0.9
Multiple empiric antibiotics 6 (8.8) 9 (8.3) 9 (8.3) 24 (8.5) 0.9
No empiric antibiotics 19 (27.9) 24 (22.2) 5 (4.6) 48 (16.9) <0.0001
No antibiotic given, n (%) 16 (23.5) 22 (20.4) 2 (1.9) 40 (14.1) <0.0001
Dexamethasone, n (%) 14 (20.6) 13 (12.0) 44/107 (41.1) 71/283 (25.1) 0.0003
ICU care, n (%) 25 (36.8) 22 (20.4) 20 (18.5) 67 (23.6) 0.009
Outcome, n (%)
Home 64 (94.1) 102 (94.4) 103 (95.4) 269 (94.7) 0.7
Death (incl. Home to die) b 1 (1.5) 2 (1.9) 4 (3.7) 7 (2.5) 0.3
Unknown (transfer / LAMA c ) 3 (4.4) 4 (3.7) 1 (0.9) 8 (2.8) 0.3
CNS infection case classification, n (%)
Confirmed 11 (16.2) 20 (18.5) 24 (22.2) 55 (19.3) 0.3
Probable 1 (1.5) 2 (1.9) 33 (30.6) 36 (12.7) <0.0001
Suspected 56 (82.3) 86 (79.6) 51 (47.2) 193 (68.0) <0.0001
  1. aDefined as treatment initiated within the first 48 h of hospital admission
  2. bOne patient was taken home when condition was deemed hopeless
  3. cLeft against medical advice