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Table 3 Presenting features of 284 hospitalised children meeting the clinical case definition for CNS infection

From: The aetiologies of central nervous system infections in hospitalised Cambodian children

Clinical feature 1-11 m 1-4y 5-15y Overall P-value
  (n = 68) (n = 108) (n = 108) (n = 284)  
History
 Symptom duration (days), median (range) 4 (1–30) 3 (1–50) 5 (1–30) 4 (1–50) <0.0001
 Fever, n (%) 68 (100) 108 (100) 108 (100) 284 (100)
 Respiratory symptomsa, n (%) 49 (72.1) 61 (56.5) 37/107 (34.6) 147/283 (51.9) <0.0001
 Vomiting, n (%) 33 (48.5) 37 (34.3) 81 (75.0) 151 (53.2) <0.0001
 Diarrhoea, n (%) 25 (36.8) 30 (27.8) 18 (16.7) 73 (25.7) 0.002
 Reduced feeding / eating & drinking, n (%) 40 (58.8) 62/105 (59.0) 73 (67.7) 175/281 (62.3) 0.0007
 Lethargicb, n (%) 34/66 (51.5) 45/102 (44.1) 63/107 (58.9) 142/275 (51.6) 0.2
 Headache, n (%) NA NA 100/107 (93.5)
 Photophobia, n (%) NA NA 9/104 (8.7)
 Seizures, n (%) 47 (69.1) 86 (79.6) 18 (16.7) 151 (53.2) <0.0001
  Generalised seizure 43 (63.2) 79 (73.1) 16 (14.8) 138 (48.6)
  Focal seizure 4 (5.9) 6 (5.6) 2 (1.9) 12 (4.2)
  Unknown seizure type 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 1 (0.4)
 Medication in week prior to admission, n (%) 21 (30.9) 39/104 (37.5) 70 (64.8) 130/280 (46.4) 0.003
 Antibiotic c 6 (8.8) 7/104 (6.7) 11 (10.2) 24/280 (8.6)
  Unknown medication 15 (22.1) 32/104 (30.8) 59 (54.6) 106/280 (37.9)
Physical findings
 Temperature (°C), median (range) 38.7
(36.5–40.3)
39.0
(38.0–40.8)
38.7
(38.0–42.0)
38.9
(36.5–39.4)
0.3
 Reduced conscious leveld, n (%) 3/50 (6.0) 12/89 (13.5) 11/104 (10.6) 26/243 (10.7) 0.5
 Bulging anterior fontanelle, n (%) 17/64 (26.6) NA NA NA
 Neck stiffness / positive Kernig’s sign, n (%) 6/64 (9.4) 6/93 (6.5) 31/98 (31.6) 43/255 (16.9) 0.01
 Limb weakness, n (%) 2 (2.9) 1 (0.9) 11 (10.2) 14/284 (4.9) 0.01
 Rash, n (%) 5/66 (7.6) 2/102 (0.02) 3/102 (2.9) 10/270 0.2
  1. NA not age applicable
  2. aAny of: cough, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, earache
  3. bDifficult to wake up or more sleepy than normal
  4. cAmoxicillin (14); ceftriaxone (5); ampicillin (2); ciprofloxacin (2); ceftriaxone + gentamicin (1)
  5. dAdmission GCS < 15/15 or V, P, or U on AVPU scale