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Table 4 Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality rate associated with influenza subtypes/lineages using different influenza proxies in registered Shanghai residents in 2010–2015, stratified by age

From: Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality attributable to seasonal influenza in subtropical Shanghai, China

   Excess P&I mortality rate per 100,000 population
   <60 years of age ≥60 years of age
   Lag 0 Lag 1 Lag 2 Lag 0 Lag 1 Lag 2
   ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI
Proxy: positive number
  A (H1N1) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.03 (0, 0.05) 0.4 (0.12, 0.69) 0.5 (0.24, 0.76) 0.46 (0.22, 0.75)
  A (H3N2) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.04) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.05) 0.02 (−0.01, 0.05) 0.32 (−0.09, 0.71) 0.61 (0.24, 0.98) 0.72 (0.32, 1.08)
  B (Victoria) −0.01 (−0.06, 0.03) −0.01 (−0.06, 0.02) 0 (−0.04, 0.03) −0.26 (−0.69, 0.14) −0.25 (−0.65, 0.11) −0.18 (−0.58, 0.19)
  B (Yamagata) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.03) 0 (−0.04, 0.03) 0 (−0.03, 0.03) 0.19 (−0.12, 0.5) 0.32 (0.01, 0.63) 0.45 (0.16, 0.73)
  Influenza 0.04 (−0.04, 0.1) 0.04 (−0.04, 0.1) 0.05 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.65 (−0.13, 1.42) 1.15 (0.42, 1.85) 1.41 (0.75, 2.09)
Proxy: positive proportion
  A (H1N1) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.03 (0, 0.05) 0.57 (0.26, 0.86) 0.63 (0.34, 0.92) 0.58 (0.31, 0.85)
  A (H3N2) 0.01 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.05) 0.03 (−0.02, 0.06) 0.46 (−0.03, 0.96) 0.74 (0.28, 1.18) 0.85 (0.46, 1.3)
  B (Victoria) 0 (−0.05, 0.04) 0 (−0.05, 0.04) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.05) −0.04 (−0.56, 0.4) −0.12 (−0.57, 0.32) −0.31 (−0.78, 0.11)
  B (Yamagata) 0 (−0.04, 0.04) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.03) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.04) 0.41 (0.02, 0.82) 0.47 (0.09, 0.87) 0.6 (0.24, 0.95)
  Influenza 0.05 (−0.06, 0.13) 0.05 (−0.06, 0.13) 0.07 (−0.01, 0.13) 1.37 (0.31, 2.35) 1.67 (0.78, 2.51) 1.68 (0.84, 2.51)
Proxy: LAB × ILI
  A (H1N1) 0.03 (0, 0.05) 0.03 (0.01, 0.05) 0.02 (0, 0.04) 0.41 (0.17, 0.63) 0.39 (0.16, 0.59) 0.36 (0.15, 0.56)
  A (H3N2) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.04) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.04) 0.03 (−0.01, 0.05) 0.46 (0.08, 0.82) 0.66 (0.31, 0.98) 0.72 (0.39, 1.05)
  B (Victoria) −0.01 (−0.05, 0.03) 0 (−0.04, 0.03) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.04) −0.11 (−0.49, 0.25) −0.21 (−0.59, 0.13) −0.4 (−0.79, −0.06)
  B (Yamagata) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.03) 0 (−0.03, 0.03) 0.01 (−0.03, 0.03) 0.35 (0.01, 0.67) 0.4 (0.07, 0.7) 0.5 (0.2, 0.78)
  Influenza 0.03 (−0.04, 0.09) 0.04 (−0.03, 0.09) 0.06 (−0.01, 0.1) 1.08 (0.4, 1.76) 1.22 (0.57, 1.81) 1.17 (0.55, 1.76)
  1. P&I pneumonia and influenza, ER excess rate, LAB × ILI product of weekly proportion of specimens tested positive for influenza and influenza-like illness consultation rate, CI confidence interval