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Table 3 Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality rate associated with influenza subtypes/lineages using different influenza proxies in Shanghai registered residents, 2010–2015

From: Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality attributable to seasonal influenza in subtropical Shanghai, China

   Excess P&I mortality rate per 100,000 population
Lag 0 Lag 1 Lag 2
ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI
Proxy: positive number
  A (H1N1) 0.14 (0.06, 0.22) 0.16 (0.09, 0.24) 0.14 (0.08, 0.22)
  A (H3N2) 0.09 (−0.02, 0.20) 0.17 (0.07, 0.28) 0.21 (0.10, 0.31)
  B (Victoria) −0.08 (−0.19, 0.04) −0.07 (−0.19, 0.03) −0.05 (−0.16, 0.05)
  B (Yamagata) 0.06 (−0.03, 0.14) 0.09 (0.00, 0.17) 0.12 (0.04, 0.20)
  Influenza 0.20 (−0.02, 0.41) 0.34 (0.12, 0.53) 0.41 (0.23, 0.59)
Proxy: positive proportion
  A (H1N1) 0.18 (0.09, 0.26) 0.19 (0.11, 0.27) 0.18 (0.10, 0.25)
  A (H3N2) 0.13 (0.00, 0.27) 0.21 (0.08, 0.33) 0.25 (0.13, 0.36)
  B (Victoria) −0.01 (−0.15, 0.11) −0.03 (−0.16, 0.08) −0.08 (−0.20, 0.04)
  B (Yamagata) 0.11 (0.01, 0.23) 0.12 (0.02, 0.22) 0.16 (0.06, 0.25)
  Influenza 0.40 (0.12, 0.67) 0.48 (0.24, 0.71) 0.50 (0.27, 0.70)
Proxy: LAB × ILI
  A (H1N1) 0.13 (0.06, 0.19) 0.12 (0.06, 0.18) 0.11 (0.05, 0.17)
  A (H3N2) 0.13 (0.03, 0.23) 0.19 (0.09, 0.28) 0.21 (0.12, 0.30)
  B (Victoria) −0.03 (−0.13, 0.06) −0.06 (−0.15, 0.04) −0.10 (−0.20, −0.01)
  B (Yamagata) 0.10 (0.01, 0.19) 0.11 (0.02, 0.20) 0.14 (0.05, 0.22)
  Influenza 0.31 (0.12, 0.51) 0.36 (0.17, 0.53) 0.35 (0.19, 0.51)
  1. P&I pneumonia and influenza, ER excess rate, LAB × ILI product of weekly proportion of specimens tested positive for influenza and influenza-like illness consultation rate, CI confidence interval